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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthCAAT

Publications -- Thomas Hartung, MD, PhD

626 Papers

h-factor: 104 (Google Scholar), over 34,000 (ResearchGate) / 40.000 (Google Scholar) citations


Top-10 journals

  • Science (IF 41.5): 1 article
  • Nature (IF 38.6): 3 articles
  • Cell Metabolism (20.1): 1 article
  • Circulation (IF 15.2): 1 article
  • Science Advances (IF 14.1): 1 article
  • J. Exp. Med (IF 13.2): 2 articles
  • Angew. Chem. (IF 13.7): 1 article
  • Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (12.9): 1 article
  • Hepatology (IF 12.0): 1 article
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (IF 11.5): 1 article

10 most frequent journals

  • ALTEX (IF 4.1): 167 articles
  • ATLA (IF 1.4): 34 articles
  • J. Immunol. (IF 5.5): 19 articles
  • Infect. Immun. (IF 4.1): 11 articles
  • Human Exp. Toxicol. (IF 1.5): 10 articles
  • Toxicol. In Vitro (IF 2.7): 10 articles
  • J. Biol. Chem. (IF 4.7) 9 articles
  • J. Immunol. Meth. (IF 2.2): 8 articles
  • J. Inf. Dis. (IF 5.9) / Eur. J. Immunol. (IF 5.0) / Immunobiol. (IF 2.8): 6 articles each
  • J. Endotox. Res. (now Innate Immunity) (IF 2.7): 5 articles


Publications since joining CAAT 2009


  1. Barreras P, Pamies D, Monaco MC, Munoz LS, Zhong X, Major EO, Hogberg HT; Hartung T and Pardo CA. A human derived 3D brain microphysiological system as a model to study JC virus infection. Journal Neurovirology 2022, 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s13365-022-01062-7.
  2. Calina D, Hernández AF, Hartung T, Egorov AM, Izotov BN, Nikolouzakis TK, Tsatsakis A and Docea AO. mRNA Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2: New frontiers in COVID-19 Pandemic and the Way Forward. Food and Chemical Toxicology, in press.
  3. Caloni F, De Angelis I and Hartung T. Replacement of animal testing by integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA): a call for in vivitrosi. Archives of Toxicology in press. doi: 10.1007/s00204-022-03299-x. Online ahead of print.
  4. Caloni F, Fossati P, Hartung T, Martino PA, Mormino G, Vitale A and De Angelis I. Summer Meeting Alternative Methods and CitiZen Science. ALTEX, in press
  5. Deng J, Hartung T, Capobianco E, Chen JY and Emmert-Streib F. Artificial Intelligence for Precision Medicine. Front. Artif. Intell. 4:834645. doi: 10.3389/frai.2021.834645
  6. Fu Y, Luechtefeld T, Karmaus A and Hartung T. The use of artificial intelligence and big data for the safety evaluation of US food-relevant chemicals. In: Knowles ME, Anelich L, Boobis A and Popping B (eds). Present knowledge in food safety – a risk-based approach throughout the food chain, Elsevier, in press.
  7. Farhat N, Tsaioun K, Saunders-Hastings P, Morgan RL, Ramoju S, Hartung T and Krewski D. Systematic review in evidence-based risk assessment. ALTEX 39:463–479. doi: 10.14573/altex.2004111.
  8. Hartung T and Krewski D. Editorial: Special Issue Development of an Evidence-Based Risk Assessment Framework. ALTEX 39:442. doi: doi:10.14573/altex.22S2. (
  9. Hartung T and Tsatsakis AM. Safety Science in the 21st Century – a Scientific Revolution in its Making. In: Tsatsakis AM, Toxicological Risk Assessment.p. 51-59. Elsevier, in print.
  10. Hoffmann S, Aiassa E, Angrish M, Beausoleil C, Bois FY, Ciccolallo L, Craig PS, de Vries RBM, Dorne JLCM, Druwe IL, Edwards SW\, Eskes C, Georgiadis M, Hartung T, Kienzler A, Kristjansson EA, Lam J, Martino L, Meek B, Morgan RL, Munoz-Guajardo I, Noyes PD, Parmelli E, Piersma A, Rooney A, Sena E, Sullivan K, Tarazona J, Terron A, Thayer K, Turner J, Verbeek J, Verloo D, Vinken M, Watford S, Whaley P, Wikoff D, Willett K and Tsaioun. Application of evidence-based methods to construct mechanism-driven chemical assessment frameworks, ALTEX 2022, 39:499–518. doi: 10.14573/altex.2202141.
  11. Huang Q, Tang B, Romero JC, Yang Y, Elsayed SK, Pahapale G, Lee T-J, Pantoja IEM, Han F, Berlinicke C, Xiang T, Solazzo M, Hartung T, Qin Z, Caffo BS, Smirnova L and Gracias DH. Shell Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) for brain organoids. Science Advances, in press. bioRxiv 2022.04.13.488025; doi: 10.1101/2022.04.13.488025
  12. Hutt A, Gruning A, Hansen A, Hartung T and Robeva R. Editorial on Machine Learning in Natural Complex Systems. Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics, in press.
  13. Karaulov AV, Smolyagin AI, Mikhailova IV, Stadnikov AA, Ermolina EV, Filippova YV, Kuzmicheva NV, Vlata ZK, Buha Djordjevic A, Christina, Hartung T, Hernandez AF and Tsatsakis AM. Assessment of the combined effects of chromium and benzene on the rat neuroendocrine and immune systems. Environmental Research 2022, 207:112096. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112096.
  14. Krewski D, Saunders-Hastings P, Baan R, Barton-Maclaren T, Bertrand C, Browne P, Chiu WA, Gwinn M, Hartung T, Kraft A, Lam J, Lewis JR, Moez S, Morgan RL, Paoli G, Rhomberg L, Rooney A, Sand S, Schünemann HJ, Straif K, Thayer K and Tsaioun, K. Workshop Report: Development of an Evidence-Based Risk Assessment Framework. ALTEX 2022, in press.
  15. Lippa KA, Aristizabal-Henao JJ, Beger RD, Bowden JA, Broeckling C, Beecher C, Davis WC, Dunn WB, Flores R, Goodacre R, Gouveia GJ, Harms AC, Hartung T, Jones CM, Lewis CM, Ntai I, Percy AJ, Raftery D, Schock TB, Sun J, Theodoridis G, Tayyari F, Torta F, Ulmer CZ, Wilson I and Ubhi BK. Reference Materials for MS-based Untargeted Metabolomics and Lipidomics: A Review by the Metabolomics Quality Assurance and Quality Control Consortium (mQACC). Metabolomics 2022, 18:24. Doi: 10.1007/s11306-021-01848-6.
  16. Maertens A, Golden E, Luechtefeld TH, Hoffmann S, Tsaioun K and Hartung T. Probabilistic Risk Assessment – the Keystone for the Future of Toxicology. ALTEX 2022, 39:3-29. doi:10.14573/altex.2201081.
  17. Neuhaus W, Reininger-Gutmann B, Rinner B, Plasenzotti R, Wilflingseder D, De Kock J, Vanhaecke T, Rogiers V, J´ırova D, Kejlova K, Knudsen LE, Nielsen RN, Kleuser B, Kral V, Thone-Reineke C, Hartung T, Pallocca G, Leist M, Hippenstiel S, Lang A, Retter I, Kramer S, Jedlicka P, Ameli K, Fritsche E, Tigges J, Buettner M, Bleich A, Baumgart N, Baumgart J, Meinhardt MW, Spanagel R, Chourbaji S, Kranzlin B, Seeger B, von Kockritz-Blickwede M, Sanchez-Morgado JM, Galligioni V, Ruiz-Perez D, Movia D, Prina-Mello A, Ahluwalia A, Chiono V, Gutleb AC, Schmit M, van Golen B, van Weereld L, Kienhuis A, van Oort E, van der Valk J, Smith A, Roszak J, Stepnik M, Sobanska Z, Olsson IAS, Franco NH, Sevastre B, Kandarova H, Capdevila S, Johansson J, Cederroth CR, Sandstrom J, Ragan I, Bubalo N and Spielmann H. The rise of 3R centres and platforms in Europe. ATLA 2022, 50:90-120.
  18. Neuhaus W, Reininger-Gutmann B, Rinner B, Plasenzotti R, Wilflingseder D, De Kock J, Vanhaecke T, Rogiers V, Jírová D, Kejlová K, Knudsen LE, Nielsen RN, Kleuser B, Kral V, Thöne-Reineke C, Hartung T, Pallocca G, Leist M, Hippenstiel S, Lang A, Retter I, Krämer S, Jedlicka P, Ameli K, Fritsche E, Tigges J, Buettner M, Bleich A, Baumgart N, Baumgart J, Meinhardt MW, Spanagel R, Chourbaji S, Kränzlin B, Seeger B, von Köckritz-Blickwede M, Sánchez-Morgado JM, Galligioni V, Ruiz-Pérez D, Movia D, Prina-Mello D, Ahluwalia A, Chiono V, Gutleb AC, Schmit M, van Golen B, van Weereld L, Kienhuis A, van Oort E, van der Valk J, Smith A, Roszak J, Stępnik M, Sobańska Z, Olsson IAS, Franco NH, Sevastre B, Kandarova H, Capdevila S, Johansson J, Cederroth CR, Sandström J, Ragan I, Bubalo N and Spielmann H. The current status and work of 3R centres and platforms in Europe ATLA - Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 2022, invited.
  19. Pamies D, Wiersma D, Katt ME, Zhong L, Burtscher J, Harris G, Smirnova L, Searson PC, Hartung T and Hogberg H. Human organotypic brain model as a tool to study chemical-induced dopaminergic neuronal toxicity. Neurobiology of Disease, 169:105719. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2022.105719.
  20. Pamies D, Leist M, Coecke S, Bowe G, Allen D, Gstraunthaler G, Bal-Price A, Pistollato F, DeVries R, Hogberg HT, Hartung T and Stacey G. Guidance Document on Good Cell and Tissue Culture Practice 2.0 (GCCP 2.0). ALTEX, 2022, 39:30–70. doi: 10.14573/altex.2111011.
  21. Ubhi B, Aristizabal-Henao JJ, Bowden JA, Broeckling C, Beecher C, Davis WC, Dunn WB, Flores R, Hartung T, Jones CM, Nati I, Percy A, Raftery D, Schock TB, Theodoridis G, Tayyari F, Torta F, Ulmer CZ, Wilson I and Lippa KA. Reference Materials and Standards for Untargeted Metabolomics and Lipidomics: A Review by the Metabolomics Quality Assurance and Quality Control Consortium (mQACC). Mettabolomics, in press.


  1. Anderson WA, Bosak A, Hogberg HT, Hartung T and Moore MJ. Advances in 3D neuronal microphysiological systems: towards a functional nervous system on a chip. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology – Animal. Published online. Doi: 10.1007/s11626-020-00532-8
  2. Aschner M, Paoliello MMB, Tsatsakis A, Bowman AB, Dorea JG, Hartung T, Domingo JL and Barbosa F J. Social Injustice in Environmental Health: A Call for Fortitude. Environmental Research 2021, 194: 110675. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110675
  3. Brown J, Clippinger AJ, Goode J, Ghosh M, Briglia C, Casey W, Coleman K, Fritsch A, Hartung T, Maouyo D, Muller T, Reich J, Robert L, Roeder R, Sanchez G, Sawyer A, Solati S, Tirumalai R, Zwislr W and Allen D. Using the Monocyte Activation Test as a Stand-alone Release Test for Medical Devices: A Workshop Report. ALTEX 2021, 38;151-156.
  4. Calina D, Hartung T, Mardare I, Mitroi M, Poulas K, Tsatsakis A, Rogoveanu I and DoceaOA. COVID-19 pandemic and alcohol consumption: impacts and interconnections. Toxicology Reports 2021, 8:529-535. Doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.
  5. Chesnut M, Hartung T, Hogberg HT and Pamies D. Human oligodendrocytes and myelin in vitro to evaluate developmental neurotoxicity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2021, 22:7929. doi: 10.3390/ijms22157929.
  6. Chesnut M, Paschoud H, Repond C, Smirnova L, Hartung T, Zurich M-G, Hogberg HT and Pamies D. Human 3D iPSC-derived brain model to study chemical-induced myelin disruption. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22:9473. doi: 10.3390/ijms22179473.
  7. de Vries RBM, Angrish M, Browne P, Brozek J, Rooney AA, Wikoff DS, Whaley P, Edwards SW, Morgan RL, Druwe IL, Hoffmann S, Hartung T, Thayer K, Avey MT, Beverly BEJ, Falavigna M, Gibbons C, Goyak K, Kraft A, Klugar M, Klugarova J, Nampo F, Qaseem A, Sears M, Singh JA, Willett K, Yost EY, Schünemann H and Tsaioun K. Application of evidence-based methods to construct mechanistic frameworks for the development and use of non-animal toxicity tests. ALTEX 2021, 38:336-347. doi:10.14573/altex.2101211
  8. Farsalinos K, Poulas K, Kouretas D, Vantarakis A, Leotsinidis M, Kouvelas D, Docea AO, Kostoff R, Gerotziafas GT, Antoniou MN, Polosa R, Barbouni A, Yiakoumaki V, Giannouchos TV, Bagos PG, Lazopoulos G, Izotov BN, Tutelyan VA, Aschner M, Hartung T, Wallace HM, Carvalho F, Domingo JL and Tsatsakis A. Improved strategies to counter the COVID-19 pandemic: Lockdowns vs. Primary and Community Healthcare. Toxicology Reports 2021, 8:1-9. Doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.12.001
  9. Golden E, Macmillan DS, Dameron G, Kern P, Hartung T and Maertens A. Evaluation of the global performance of eight in silico skin sensitization models using human data. ALTEX 2021, 38:33-48. doi: 10.14573/altex.1911261
  10. Golden E, Maertens M, Hartung T and Maertens A. Mapping Respiratory Sensitization: How Useful Are Our Current Tools? Chemical Research in Toxicology 2021, 34:473-482. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.0c00320.
  11. Hartung T. Pyrogen testing revisited on occasion of the 25th anniversary of the whole blood test. ALTEX 2021, 38:3-19. doi: 10.14573/altex.2101051
  12. Hartung T. Evidence integration in the era of information flooding – the advent of the comprehensive review. Frontiers in Public Health, 9:763828. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.763828.
  13. Hartung T and Tsatsakis AM. The state of the Scientific Revolution in Toxicology. ALTEX 2021, 38:379-386. doi:10.14573/altex.2106101.
  14. Hoffmann S, Margliani B, Akgün-Ölmez SG, Ireland D, Cruz R, Busquet F, Flick B, Lalu M, Ghandakly EC, de Vries R, Witters H, Wright RA, Ölmez M, Willett C, Hartung T, Stephens ML and Tsaioun K. A systematic review to compare chemical hazard predictions of the zebrafish embryo test with mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity. Toxicological Sciences 2021, 183:14–35. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfab072
  15. Hogberg HT, de Cássia da Silveira e Sá R, Kleensang A, Bouhifd M, Cemiloglu Ulker O, Smirnova L, Behl M, Maertens A, Zhao L and Hartung T. Organophosphorus flame retardants are developmental neurotoxicants in a rat primary BrainSphere in vitro model, Arch Toxicol 2021, 95:207-228, doi: 10.1007/s00204-020-02903-2
  16. Kang I, Smirnova L, Kuhn JH, Hogberg HT, Kleinstreuer NC and Hartung T. OVID-19 – prime time for microphysiological systems, as illustrated for the brain, ALTEX 2021, 38:535-549. doi: 10.14573/altex.2110131.
  17. Knight J, Rovida C, Kreiling R, Zhu C, Knudsen M and Hartung T. Continuing animal tests on cosmetic ingredients for REACH in the EU. ALTEX, 2021 38:653-668. doi: 10.14573/altex.2104221.
  18. Locke PA, Singer M and Hartung T. The Humane Research and Testing Act: Advancing Science by Creating a New Center for Alternatives at the US National Institutes of Health. ALTEX 2021, 38:678-680. doi: 10.14573/altex.2106031.
  19. Maertens A, Golden E and Hartung T. Avoiding Regrettable Substitutions: Green Toxicology for Sustainable Chemistry. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2021, 9, 23, 7749–7758.
  20. Mansouri K, Karmaus A, Fitzpatrick J, Patlewicz G, Pradeep P, Alberga D, Alepee N, Allen T, Allen D, Alves VM, Andrade CH, Auernhammer TT, Ballabio D, Bell S, Benfenati E, Bhattacharya S, Bastos JV, Boyd S, Brown JB, Capuzzi SJ, Chushak Y, Ciallella H, Clark AM, Consonni V, Daga PR, Ekins S, Farag S, Fedorov M, Fourches D, Gadaleta D, Gao F, Gearhart JM, Goh G, Goodman JM, Grisoni F, Grulke CM, Hartung T, Hirn M, Karpov P, Korotcov A, Lavado GJ, Lawless M, Li X, Luechtefeld T, Lunghini F, Mangiatordi GF, Marcou G, Marsh D, Martin T, Mauri A, Muratov EN, Myatt GJ, Nguyen D-T, Nicolotti O, Note R, Pande P, Parks AK, Peryea T, Polash A, Rallo R, Roncaglioni A, Rowlands C, Ruiz P, Russo D, Sayed A, Sayre R, Sheils T, Siegel C, Silva AC, Simeonov A, Sosnin S, Southall N, Strickland J, Tang Y, Teppen B, Tetko IV, Thomas D, Tkachenko V, Todeschini R, Toma C, Tripodi I, Trisciuzzi D, Tropsha A, Varnek A, Vukovic K, Wang Z, Wang L, Waters KM, Wedlake AJ, Wijeyesakere SJ, Wilson D, Xiao Z, Yang H, Zahoranszky-Kohalmi G, Zakharov AV, Zhang FF, Zhang Z, Zhao T, Zhu H, Zorn KM, Casey W and Kleinstreuer NC. CATMoS: Collaborative Acute Toxicity Modeling Suite. Environmental Health Perspectives 2021, 129:47013. doi: 10.1289/EHP8495
  21. Modafferi S, Zhong X, Kleensang A, Murata Y, Fagiani F, Pamies D, Hogberg HT, Calabrese V, Lachman H, Hartung T and Smirnova L. Gene–environment interactions in developmental neurotoxicity: a case study of synergy between chlorpyrifos and CHD8 knockout in human BrainSpheres. Environmental Health Perspectives 2021, 129:77001. Doi: 10.1289/EHP8580
  22. Roth A and MPS-WS Berlin 2019 [Marx U, Vilén L, Ewart L, Griffith LG, Hartung T, Ingber DE, Mendrick DL, Steger-Hartmann T and Tagle DA]. Human microphysiological systems for drug development. Science 2021, 373:1304-1306.
  23. Sarigiannis DA, Hartung T and Karakitsios SP. The exposome—a new paradigmfor non-animal toxicology and integrated risk assessment. In: Tsatsakis AM. Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multi-System Health Impacts from Exposure. Elsevier, Academic Press, London, 2021, 23-30.
  24. Spoladore J, Lopes IG, Bachinski RF, Negherbon JP, Hartung T, Granjeiro JM and Alves GG. Standardized pyrogen testing of health products with bacterial endotoxin tests (BET) as a substitute for rabbit pyrogen testing (RPT): a scoping review. Toxicology In Vitro, 2021, 74, 105160. Available online: doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2021.105160.
  25. Tran V, Kim R, Maertens M, Hartung T and Maertens A. Similarities and differences in gene expression networks between the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and invasive human breast cancer tissues. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, section Medicine and Public Health 2021, 4:674370. doi: 10.3389/frai.2021.674370
  26. Vinken M, Benfenati E, Busquet F, Castell J, Clevert D-A, de Kok T, Dirven H, Fritsche E, Geris L, Gozalbes R, Hartung T, Jennen D, Jover R, Kandarova H, Kramer N, Krul C, Luechtefeld T, Masereeuw R, Roggen E, Schaller S, Vanhaecke T, Yang C, and Piersma AH. Safer chemicals using less animals: kick-off of the European ONTOX project. Toxicology 2021, 458, 152846, doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2021.152846.
  27. Wang T, Liu H, Itoh K, Oh S, Zhao L, Murata D, Sesaki H, Hartung T, Na CH and Wang J. C9orf72 regulates energy homeostasis by stabilizing mitochondrial complex I assembly. Cell Metabolism 2021, 33:531-546.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2021.01.005


  1. Aschner M, Paoliello MMB, Domingo JL; Spandidos DA, Mally A, Wallace HE; Rakitskii VN, Hartung T and Tsatsakis A. When the boundaries between science and politics are blurred. Toxicology Reports 2020, 7:1607. Doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.11.010
  2. Ball N, Madden J, Mathea N, Sperber S, Hartung T and van Ravenzwaay B. Key read across framework components and biology based improvements. Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 2020, 853:503172. Doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2020.503172
  3. Bullen CK, Hogberg HT, Bahadirli-Talbott A, Bishai WR, Hartung T, Keuthan C, Looney MM, Peckosz A, Romero C, Sillé FCM, Um P and Smirnova L. Infectability of human BrainSphere neurons suggests neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2, ALTEX 2020, 37:665-671. doi: 10.14573/altex.2006111
  4. Busquet F, Kleensang A, Rovida C, Herrmann K, Leist M and Hartung T. New European Union statistics on laboratory animal use – what really counts! ALTEX 2020, 37:167-186. 10.14573/altex.2003241, supplement available at:
  5. Busquet F, Hartung T, Rovida C, Pallocca G and Leist M. Harnessing the power of novel animal-free test methods for the development of COVID-19 drugs and vaccines. Arch Toxicol 2020, 94:2263–2272. Doi: 10.1007/s00204-020-02787-2.
  6. Calina D, Hartung T, Docea AO, Spandidos DA, Egorov AM, Shtilman MI, Carvalho F, and Tsatsakis A. COVID-19 vaccines: Ethical framework concerning human challenge studies. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2020, 28:807–812. doi: 10.1007/s40199-020-00371-8.
  7. Evans AM, O’Donovan C, Playdon M, Beecher C, Beger RD, Bowden JA, Broadhurst D, Clish CB, Dasari S, Dunn W, Griffin JL, Hartung T, Hsu P-C, Huan T, Jans J, Jones C, Kachman M, Kleensang A, Lewis MR, Monge ME, Mosley J, Taylor E, Theodoridis G, Torta F, Ubhi BK and Vuckovic D on behalf of the Metabolomics Quality Assurance and Quality Control Consortium (mQACC). Dissemination and analysis of the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) practices of LC-MS based untargeted metabolomics practitioners. Metabolomics 2020, 16:113.
  8. Flanagan E, Lamport D, Brennan L, Burnet P, Calabrese V, Cunnane SC, de Wilde MC, Dye L, Farrimond JA, Emerson Lombardo N, Hartmann T, Hartung T, Kalliomäki M, Kuhnle G, La Fata G, Sala-Vila A, Samieri C, Smith AD, Spencer JPE, Thuret S, Tuohy K, Turroni S, Vanden Berghe W, Verkuijl M, VerzijdenK, Yannakoulia M, Geurts L and Vauzour D. Nutrition and the ageing brain: Moving towards clinical applications. Ageing Research Reviews 2020, 101079. Doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2020.101079.
  9. Krewski D, Andersen M, Tyshenko MG, Krishnan K, Hartung T, Boekelheide K, Wambaugh JF, Jones D, Whelan M, Thomas R, Yauk C, Barton-Maclaren T and Cote I. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Progress in the past decade and future perspectives. Arch Toxicol 2020, 94:1–58
  10. Libowitz L, Bloem MW, Hugas M, Tsaioun K, Url B and Hartung T. EFSA – Johns Hopkins Food Safety Symposium 2019. ALTEX 2020, 37:312-314. 10.14573/altex.2002181
  11. Maertens A and Hartung T. Green toxicology meets nanotoxicology: the process of sustainable nanomaterial development and use. Puzyn T (Ed.): Computational Nanotoxicology: Challenges, Pitfalls, and Perspectives. 2020 Jenny Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd., pp. 495-506.
  12. Maertens A, Tran V, Maertens M, Kleensang A, Luechtefeld T, Hartung T, and Paller C. Functionally enigmatic genes in cancer: using TCGA data to map the limitations of annotations. Scientific Reports 2020, 10:4106. Doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-60456-x.
  13. Marx U, Akabane T, Andersson TB, Baker E, Beilmann M, Beken S, Brendler-Schwaab S, Cirit M, David R, Dehne E-M, Durieux I, Ewart L, Fitzpatrick SC, Frey O, Fuchs F, Griffith LG, Hamilton GA, Hartung T, Hoeng J, Hogberg H, Hughes DJ, Ingber DE, Iskandar A, Kanamori T, Kojima H, Kuehnl J, Leist M, Li B, Loskill P, Mendrick DL, Neumann T, Pallocca G, Rusyn I, Smirnova L, Steger-Hartmann T, Tagle DA, Tonevitsky A, Tsyb S, Trapecar M, van de Water B, van den Eijnden-van Raaij J, Vulto P, Watanabe K, Wolf A, Zhou X and Roth A. Biology-inspired microphysiological systems to advance medicines for patient benefit and animal welfare. ALTEX 2020, 37:364-394. doi: 10.14573/altex.2001241
  14. Pamies D, Zurich M-G and Hartung T. Organotypic models to study human glioblastoma – studying the beast in its ecosystem. iScience 2020, 23:101633. Doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101633
  15. Pamies D, Leist M, Coecke S, Bowe G, Allen D, Gstraunthaler G, Bal-Price A, Pistollato F, DeVries R, Hartung T and Stacey G. Good Cell and Tissue Culture Practice 2.0 (GCCP 2.0) – Draft for Stakeholder Discussion and Call for Action. ALTEX 37:490-492. doi:10.14573/altex.2007091
  16. Rovida C, Barton-Maclaren T, Benfenati E, Caloni F, Chandrasekera C, Chesne C, Cronin MTD, De Knecht J, Dietrich DR, Escher SE, Fitzpatrick S, Flannery B, Herzler M, Hougaard Bennekou S, Hubesch B, Kamp H, Kisitu J, Kleinstreuer N, Kovarich S, Leist M, Maertens A, Nugent K, Pallocca G, Pastor M, Patlewicz G, Pavan M, Presgrave O, Smirnova L, Schwarz M, Yamada T and Hartung T. Internationalisation of read-across as a validated new approach 2 method (NAM) for regulatory toxicology. ALTEX 2020, 37:579-606. doi: 10.14573/altex.1912181.
  17. Sillé FCM, Karakitsios S, Kleensang A, Koehler K, Maertens A, Miller GW, Prasse C, Quiros-Alcala L, Ramachandran G, Rappaport SM, Rule AM, Sarigiannis D, Smirnova L and Hartung T. The exposome – a new approach for risk assessment. ALTEX 2020, 37: 3-23. doi: 10.14573/altex.2001051.
  18. Steimberg N, Bertero A, Chiono V, Dell’Era P, Di Angelantonio S, Hartung T, Perego S, Raimondi M, Xinaris C, Caloni F, De Angelis I, Alloisio S, Baderna D. iPS, organoids and 3D models as advanced tools for in vitro toxicology. ALTEX 2020, 37:136-40. doi: 10.14573/altex.1911071.
  19. Zhong X, Harris G, Smirnova L, Zufferey V, de Cássia da Silveira e Sá R, Baldino Russo F, Baleeiro Beltrao Braga PC, Chesnut M, Zurich M-G, Hogberg H, Hartung T and Pamies D. Paroxetine exerts developmental neurotoxicity in an iPSC derived 3D human brain model. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 2020, 14: 25. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2020.00025.


  1. Beger RD, Dunn WB, Bandukwala A, Bethan B, Broadhurst D, Clish CB, Dasari S, Derr L, Evans A, Fischer S, FlynnT, Hartung T, Herrington D, Higashi R, Hsu P-C, Jones C, Kachman M, Karuso H, Kruppa G, LippaK, Maruvada P, Mosley J, Ntai I, O’Donovan C, Playdon M, Raftery D, Shaughnessy D, Souza A, Spaeder T, Spalholz B, Tayyari F, Ubhi B, Verma M, Walk T, Wilson I, Witkin K, Bearden DW and Zanetti KA. Towards quality assurance and quality control in untargeted metabolomics studies. Metabolomics (2019) 15: 4.
  2. Beilmann M, Boonen H, Czich A, Dear G, Hewitt P, Mow T, Newham P, Oinonen T, Pognan F, Roth A, Valentin J-P, van Goethem F, Weaver R J, Birk B, Boyer B, Caloni F, Chen AE, Corvi R, Cronin MTD, Daneshian M, Ewart LC, FitzGerald RE, Hamilton GA, Hartung T, Kangas JD, Kramer NI, Leist M, Marx U, Polak S, Rovida C, Testai E, van de Water B, Vulto P, and Steger-Hartmann T. Optimizing drug discovery by Investigative Toxicology: Current and future trends. ALTEX 2019, 36:3-17.
  3. Corvi R, Spielmann H and Hartung T. Alternative approaches for carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. In: Balls M, Combes R and Worth A. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology (chapter 3.7). 2019, 209-218. Elsevier, Academic Press, London. eBook ISBN: 9780128136980, Paperback ISBN: 9780128136973.
  4. Goldberg A, Leist M and Hartung T. The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) in the USA and Europe. In: Balls M, Combes M and Worth A. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology (chapter 2.11). 2019, 109-118. Elsevier, Academic Press, London. eBook ISBN: 9780128136980, Paperback ISBN: 9780128136973.
  5. Hartung T, de Vries R, Hoffmann S, Hogberg H, Smirnova L, Tsaioun K, Whaley P and Leist M. Toward Good In Vitro Reporting Standards. ALTEX 2019, 36:3-17. Doi: 10.14573/altex.1812191.
  6. Hartung T. Research and testing without animals – where are we now and where are we heading? in: Herrman K and Jayne K (Eds), Animal experimentation: Working towards a paradigm change. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 673-686
  7. Hartung T. Predicting toxicity of chemicals: software beats animal testing. EFSA Journal 2019, 17, Issue S1, e170710. Doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2019.e170710
  8. Hartung T. La sperimentazione farmacologica sugli animali. In: Fedi B and Corsini M. L’errore antropocentrico – uomo – natura – altri viventi. Mimesis Edizioni, Milano, 2019, 207-210.
  9. Karaulov AV, Renieri EA, Smolyagin AI, Mikhaylova IV, Stadnikov AA, Begun DN, Tsarouhas K, Buha A, Hartung T and Tsatsakis A. Long-term effects of chromium on morphological and immunological parameters of Wistar rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019, 133:110748. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110748.
  10. Krebs A, Waldmann T, Wilks MF, van Vugt-Lussenburg BMA, van der Burg B, Terron A, Steger-Hartmann T, Ruegg J, Rovida C, Pedersen E, Pallocca G, Luijten M, Leite SB, Kustermann S, Kamp H, Hoeng J, Hewitt P, Herzler M, Hengstler JG, Heinonen T, Hartung T, Hardy B, Gantner F, Fritsche E, Fant K, Ezendam J, Exner T, Dunkern T, Dietrich DR, Coecke S, Busquet F, Braeuning A, Bondarenko O, Bennekou SH, Beilmann M and Leist M. Template for the description of cell-based toxicological test methods to allow evaluation and regulatory use of the data. ALTEX 2019 36:682-699. doi: 10.14573/altex.1909271.
  11. Leite PEC, Pereira MR, Harris G, Pamies D, Gobbo dos Santos LM, Granjeiro JM, Hogberg HT, Hartung T and Smirnova L. Suitability of 3D human brain spheroid models to distinguish toxic effects of gold and poly-lactic acid nanoparticles to assess biocompatibility for brain drug delivery. Particle and Fiber Toxicology 2019, 16:22.
  12. Luechtefeld T, Marsh D and Hartung T. Missing the difference between big data & artificial intelligence in RASAR versus traditional QSAR. Toxicological Sciences 2019, 167:4–5, doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy287
  13. Nguyen T, Kirsch BJ, Asaka R, Nabi K, Quinones A, Tan J, Antonio MJ, Camelo F, Li T, Nguyen S, Hoang G, Nguyen K, Udupa S, Sazeides C, Shen Y-A, Elgogary A,Reyes J, Zhao L, Kleensang A, Chaichana, KL, Hartung T, Betenbaugh MJ, Marie SK, Jung JG, Wang T-L, Gabrielson E and Le A. Uncovering the Role of N-Acetyl-Aspartyl-Glutamate as a Glutamate Reservoir in Cancer. Cell Reports 2019, 27:491–501.e6. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.036
  14. Plummer S, Wallace S, Ball G, Lloyd R, Schiapparelli P, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Hartung T and Pamies D. A Human iPSC-derived 3D platform using primary brain cancer cells to study drug development and personalized medicine. Scientific Reports 2019, 9:1407.
  15. Russo DP, Strickland J, Karmaus AL, Wang W, Shende S, Hartung T, Aleksunes LM and Zhu H. Nonanimal Models for Acute Toxicity Evaluations: Applying Data-Driven Profiling and Read-Across. Environmental Health Perspectives 2019, 127:047001–14. Doi: 10.1289/EHP3614
  16. Stephens M, Akgün-Ölmez Gül S, Hoffmann S, de Vries R, Flick B, Hartung T, Lalu M, Maertens A, Witters H, Wright R and Tsaioun K. Adaptation of the systematic review framework to the assessment of toxicological test methods: early lessons learned using the zebrafish embryotoxicity test as the test case. Toxicological Sciences 2019, 171:56–68. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfz128
  17. Tsatsakis A, Tyshko NV, Docea AO, Shestakova SI, Sidorova YS, Petrov NA, Zlatian O, Mach M, Hartung T and Tutelyan VA. The effect of chronic vitamin deficiency and long term very low dose exposure to 6 pesticides mixture on neurological outcomes – a real-life risk simulation approach. Toxicology Letters 2019, 315:96-106. Doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.07.026


  1. Abreu CM, Gama L, Krasemann S, Chesnut M, Odwin-Dacosta S, Hogberg H, Hartung and Pamies D. Microglia increase inflammatory responses in iPSC-dervied human BrainSpheres. Frontiers Microbiology 2018, Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 2766. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02766.
  2. Alves VM, Capuzzi SJ, Braga RC, Borba JVB, Silva AC, Luechtefeld T, Hartung T, Andrade CH, Muratova EN and Tropsha A. A perspective and a new integrated computational strategy for skin sensitization assessment. Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6:2845-2859.
  3. Chesnut M, Yamada T, Adams T, Knight D, Kleinstreuer N, Kass G, Luechtefeld T, Hartung T and Maertens A. Regulatory Acceptance of Read-Across: Report from an International Satellite Meeting at the 56th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology. ALTEX 2018, 35:413-419.
  4. Delp J, Gutbier S, Cerff M, Zasada C, Niedenführ S, Zhao L, Smirnova L, Hartung T, Borlinghaus H, Schreiber F, Bergemann J, Gätgens J, Beyss M, Azzouzi S, Waldmann T, Kempa S, Nöh K, and Leist M. Stage-specific metabolic features of differentiating neurons: implications for toxicant sensitivity. Toxicology Applied Pharmacology 2018, 354:64-80. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2017.12.013
  5. Arch Toxicol 2018, 92:2587-2606.
  6. Hartung T. Making big sense from big data. Frontiers in Big Data, 2018, Frontiers in Big Data 1:5. doi: 10.3389/fdata.2018.00005
  7. Hartung T. Rebooting the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) approach for food additive safety in the US. ALTEX 2018, 35:3-25.
  8. Hartung T. Perspectives on in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. Journal of Applied In Vitro Toxicology 2018, 4:305–316. Doi: 10.1089/aivt.2016.0026.
  9. Hartung, T. Alternatives to animal testing. In: Greim H and Snyder R. Toxicology and Risk Assessment: A Comprehensive Introduction, 2nd edition, 2018, Wiley, p.461-471
  10. Luechtefeld T, Rowlands C and Hartung T. Big-data and machine learning to revamp computational toxicology and its use in risk assessment. Toxicological Research 2018, 7:732-744, doi:10.1039/C8TX00051D.
  11. Luechtefeld T, Marsh D, Rowlands C and Hartung T. Machine learning of toxicological big data enables read-across structure activity relationships (RASAR) outperforming animal test reproducibility. Toxicological Sciences, 2018, 165:198-212. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy152.
  12. Maertens A and Hartung T. Green toxicology – know early about and avoid toxic product liabilities. Toxicol. Sci. 2018, 161:285–289. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfx243.
  13. Maertens A, Tran V, Kleensang A and Hartung T. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) reveals novel transcription factors associated with Bisphenol A dose-response. Frontiers in Genetics, section Bioinformatics and Computational Biology 2018, 9:508. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00508.
  14. Meigs L, Smirnova L, Rovida C, Leist M and Hartung T. Animal testing and its alternatives – the most important omics is economics. ALTEX 2018, 35:275-305. doi: 10.14573/altex.1807041
  15. Pamies D, Block K, Lau P, Gribaldo L, Pardo C, Barreras P, Smirnova L, Wiersma D, Zhao L, Harris G, Hartung T and Hogberg HT. Rotenone exerts developmental neurotoxicity in a Human Brain Spheroid model. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018, 354:101-114. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2018.02.003.
  16. Pamies D, Bal-Price A, Chesne C, Coecke S, Dinnyes A, Eskes C, Grillari, Gstraunthaler G, Hartung T, Jennings, P., Leist M, Martin U, Passier R, Schwamborn JC, Stacey GN, Ellinger-Ziegelbauer H and Daneshian M. Advanced Good Cell Culture Practice for human primary, stem cell-derived and organoid models as well as microphysiological systems. ALTEX, 2018, 35:353-378. doi:10.14573/altex.1710081.
  17. Ramirez T, Strigun A, Verlohner A, Huener H-A, Peter E, Herold M, Mellert W, Walk T, Spitzer M, Hartung T, Kamp H and van Ravenzwaay B. Prediction of liver toxicity and mode of action using metabolomics in vitro. Arch Toxicol 2018, 92:893-906. doi: 10.1007/s00204-017-2079-6
  18. Smirnova L, Kleinstreuer N, Corvi R, Levchenko A, Fitzpatrick SC and Hartung T. 3S – Systematic, systemic, and systems biology and toxicology. ALTEX 2018, 35:139-162. doi:10.14573/altex.1804051
  19. Smirnova, L., and Hartung, T. Human 3D in vitro models for developmental neurotoxicity. In Slikker W, Paule MG and Wang C (eds.). Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, 2018, 163–172, Elsevier. Doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809405-1.00014-6.
  20. Volz T, Kaesler S, Draing C, Hartung T, Röcken M, Skabytska Y and Biedermann T. Induction of IL-10-balanced immune profiles following exposure to LTA from Staphylococcus epidermidis. Experimental Dermatology, 27:318-326.


  1. Aschner M, Ceccatelli S, Daneshian M, Fritsche E, Hasiwa N, Hartung T, Hogberg HT, Leist M, Li A, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Piersma AH, Bal-Price A, Seiler A, Westerink R, Zimmer B and Lein P. Selection of reference compounds for characterization and development of alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing. ALTEX 2017, 34:49-74. doi: 10.14573/altex.1604201
  2. Bowman CE, Rodriguez S, Alpergin ESS, Acoba MG, Zhao L, Hartung T, Claypool SM, Watkins PA and Wolfgang MJ. The mammalian malonyl-CoA synthetase ACSF3 is required for mitochondrial protein malonylation and metabolic efficiency. Cell Chem. Biol. 2017, 24:673-684.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2017.04.009.
  3. Busquet F and Hartung T. The need for strategic development of safety sciences. ALTEX 2017, 34:3-21.
  4. Crawford SE, Hartung T, Hollert H, Mathes B, van Ravenzwaay B, Steger-Hartman T, Studer C and Krug HF. Green toxicology: A strategy for sustainable chemical and material development. Environmental Sciences Europe 2017, 29:16. doi: 10.1186/s12302-017-0115-z. Available at:
  5. Elgogary A, Xu Q, Poore B, Alt J, Zimmermann SC, Zhao L, Fu J, Chen B, Xia S, Liu Y, Neisser M, Nguyen C, Lee R, Park JK, Reyes J, Hartung T, Rojas C, Rais R, Tsukamoto T, Semenza GL, Hanes J, Slusher BS and Le A. Combination therapy with BPTES nanoparticles and metformin targets the metabolic heterogeneity of pancreatic cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 2017, 113:E5328-5336. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611406113
  6. Escher BI, Hackermüller J, Polte T, Scholz S, Aigner A, Altenburger R, Böhme A, Bopp SK, Brack W, Busch W, Chadeau-Hyam M, Covaci A, Eisenträger A, Galligan J, Garcia-Reyero N, Hartung T, Hein M, Herberth G, Jahnke A, Kleinjans J, Kluever N, Krauss M, Lamoree M, Lehmann I, Luckenbach T, Miller GW, Mueller A, Phillips DH, Rappaport SM, Reemtsma T, Rolle-Kampczyk U, Schüürmann G, Schwikowski B, Tan Y-M, Trump S, Walter-Rohde S and Wambaugh JF. From the exposome to mechanistic understanding of chemical-induced adverse effects. Environment International 2017, 99:97–106.
  7. Eskes C, Boström A-C, Bowe G, Coecke S, Hartung T, Hendriks G, Pamies D, Piton A and Rovida C. Good Cell Culture Practices & In Vitro Toxicology. Toxicology In Vitro 2017, 45:272-277. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.04.022.
  8. Fowle JJR III, Curren RD, Hartung T, Proctor C and Wilcox N. Twenty-First Century In Vitro Toxicology Testing Methods and the Assessment of e-Cigarettes. Applied in Vitro Toxicology 2017, 3: 3–9. Doi: 10.1089/aivt.2017.29011.rtl
  9. Harris G, Hogberg H, Hartung T and Smirnova L. 3D differentiation of LUHMES cell line to study recovery and delayed neurotoxic effects. Current Protocols in Toxicology 2017, 73, 11.23.1–11.23.28. doi: 10.1002/cptx.29.
  10. Hartung T. Thresholds of Toxicological Concern – setting a threshold for testing where there is little concern. ALTEX 2017, 34:331-351. doi: 10.14573/altex.1707011.
  11. Hartung T. Utility of the Adverse Outcome Pathway concept in drug development. Expert Opinion In Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 2017, 13:1-3. Doi: 10.1080/17425255.2017.1246535
  12. Hartung T, Hogberg HT, Leist M, Pamies D and Smirnova L. Advanced cell techniques to study developmental neurobiology and toxicology. In: Slikker W and Wang C. Neural Cell Biology. Chapter 18. 2017, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, 187-217.
  13. Hartung T. Alternativen zu Tierversuchen. In: Greim H. Das Toxikologiebuch: Grundlagen, Verfahren, Bewertung, 2017, Wiley, 577-589.
  14. Hartung T. Evolution of toxicological science: the need for change. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management 2017, 20:21-45.
  15. Hartung T and Rovida C. Prospettive della ricerca scientifica attraverso metodi alternative alla sperimentazione animale. In: Ferroni MV and Campanaro C. (Ed). Metodi alternative alla sperimentazione animale. G. Giappichelli Editore, Torino, 17-23.
  16. Hartung T, Kavlock R and Sturla S. Systems Toxicology II: a special issue. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2017, 30:869–869.
  17. Hartung T. Opinion versus evidence for the need to move away from animal testing. ALTEX 2017, 34:193-200.
  18. Hartung T. Food for Thought ... the first ten years. ALTEX 2017, 34:187-192.
  19. Hartung T, FitzGerald R, Jennings P, Miriams G, Peitsch M, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Shah I, Wilks M, and Sturla S. Systems toxicology - Real world applications and opportunities. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2017, 30:870–882. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.7b00003.
  20. Hartung T. A Comprehensive Overview of the Current Status and Application of Predictive ADMET. In: Experimental ADME and Toxicology, Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III. 2017, 4-8:150-155. Doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-409547-2.12378-9
  21. Hoffmann S, de Vries RBM, Stephens ML, Beck NB, Dirven H, Fowle JR III, Goodman JE, Hartung T, Kimber I, Lalu MM, Thayer K, Whaley P, Wikoff D and Tsaioun K. A primer on systematic reviews in toxicology. Archives of Toxicology 2017, 91:2551–2575. DOI 10.1007/s00204-017-1980-3.
  22. Kaesler S, Skabytska Y, Chen K-M, Kempf WE, Volz T, Köberle M, Wölbing F, Hein U, Hartung T, Kirschning C, Röcken M and Biedermann T. Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid induces temporary T-cell paralysis independent of Toll-like receptor 2. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2017, 138:780-790.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.11.043.
  23. Kerecman Myers D, Goldberg AM, Poth A, Wolf MF, Carraway J McKim J, Coleman KP, Hutchinson R, Brown R, Krug HF, Bahinski A and Hartung T. From in vivo to in vitro: the medical device testing paradigm shift, ALTEX 2017, 34:479-500.
  24. Kleensang A, Maertens A and Hartung T. From big data to predictive analysis from in vitro systems. In: Atala A and Murphy S. Regenerative Medicine Technology: On-a-chip Applications for Disease Modeling, Drug Discovery and Personalized Medicine. CRC Press, pp. 85-101. Doi: 10.1201/9781315371344
  25. Lee J, Choi J, Alpergin ESS, Zhao L, Hartung T, Scafidi S, Riddle RC and Wolfgang MJ. Loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation confers resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Cell Reports 2017, 20:655–667. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.06.080.
  26. Leist M, Ghallab A, Graepel R, Marchan R, Hassan R, Hougaard, Bennekou S, Limonciel A, Vinken M, Schildknecht S, Waldmann T, Danen E, van Ravenzwaay B, Kamp H, Gardner I, Godoy P, Bois FY, Braeuning A, Reif R, Oesch F, Drasdo D, Höhme S, Schwarz M, Hartung T, Braunbeck T, Beltman J, Vrieling H, Sanz F, Forsby A, Gadaleta D, Fisher C, Kelm J, Fluri D, Ecker G, Zdrazil B, Terron A, Jennings P, van der Burg B, Dooley S, Meijer AH, Willighagen E, Martens M, Evelo C, Mombelli E, Taboureau O, Mantovani A, Hardy B, Koch B, Escher S, van Thriel C, Cadenas C, Kroese D, van de Water B and Hengstler JG. Adverse outcome pathways: opportunities, limitations and open questions. Archives Toxicology 2017, 31:221–229. DOI 10.1007/s00204-017-2045-3.
  27. Luechtefeld T and Hartung T. Computational Approaches to Chemical Hazard Assessment. ALTEX 2017, 34:459-478.
  28. Maertens A, Bouhifd M, Zhao L, Odwin-DaCosta S, Kleensang A, Yager JD and Hartung T. Metabolomic network analysis of estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells: a comparison of over-representation analysis, quantitative enrichment analysis and pathway analysis versus metabolite network analysis. Arch. Toxicol. 2017, 91:217-230. DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1695-x
  29. Myint L, Kleensang A, Zhao L, Hartung T and Hansen KD. Joint bounding of peaks across samples improves differential analysis in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Analytical Chemistry 2017, 89:3517-3523. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04719.
  30. Negherbon JP, Romero K, Williams DL, Guerrero-Preston RE, Hartung T, Scott AL, Breysse PN, Checkley W and Hansel NN. Whole blood cytokine response to local traffic-related particulate matter in Peruvian children with and without asthma. Front Pharmacol 2017, 8: 157.
  31. Pamies D, Barreras P, Block K, Makri G, Kumar A, Wiersma D, Smirnova L, Zang C, Bressler J, Christian KM, Harris G, Ming G-L, Kyro K, Berlinicke C, Song H, Pardo CA, Hartung T and Hogberg HT. A human brain microphysiological system derived from iPSC to study central nervous system toxicity and disease. ALTEX 2017, 34:362-376. doi: 10.14573/altex.1609122.
  32. Pamies D, Bal-Price A, Simeonov A, Tagle D, Allen D, Gerhold D, Yin D, Pistollato F, Inutsuka T, Sullivan K, Stacey G, Salem H, Leist M, Daneshian M, Vemuri MC, McFarland R, Coecke S, Fitzpatrick SC, Lakshmipathy U, Mack A, Wang WB, Sekino Y, Kanda Y, Smirnova L and Hartung T. Good Cell Culture Practice for stem cells and stem-cell-derived models. ALTEX 2017, 34:95-132.
  33. Pamies D and Hartung T. 21st century cell culture for 21st century toxicology. Chem Res Toxicol 2017, 30:43–52. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00269
  34. Pendse SN, Maertens A, Rosenberg M, Roy D, Fasani R, Vantangoli M, Madnick S, Boekelheide K, Fornace A Jr, Odwin S-A, Yager J, Hartung T, Andersen ME and McMullen PD. Information-dependent enrichment analysis reveals time-dependent transcriptional regulation of the estrogen pathway of toxicity. Arch. Toxicol. 2017, 91:1749–1762. doi:
  35. Russo DP, Kim MT, Wang W, Pinolini D, Shende S, Strickland J, Hartung T and Zhu H. CIIPro: a new read-across portal to fill data gaps using public large-scale chemical and biological data. Bioinformatics 2017, 33:464–466, doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btw640
  36. Schmidt BZ, Lehmann M, Gutbier S, Nembo E, Noel S, Smirnova L, Forsby A, Hescheler J, Avci HX, Hartung T, Leist M, Kobolák J and Dinnyés A. In vitro neurotoxicity screening: an overview of cellular platforms and high-throughput technical possibilities. Arch. Toxicol. 2017, 91:1-33. DOI 10.1007/s00204-016-1805-9.
  37. Skardal A, Murphy S, Devarasetty M, Mead I, Kang H-W, Seol Y-J, Shrike Zhang Y, Ryon Shin S, Zhao L, Aleman J, Hall A, Shupe T, Kleensang A, Dokmeci M, Lee SJ, Jackson J, Yoo J, Hartung T, Khademhosseini A, Soker S, Bishop C, and Atala A. Multi-tissue interactions in an integrated three-tissue organ-on-a-chip platform. Scientific Reports 2017, 7, Article number: 8837 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08879-x.
  38. Tong Z-B, Hogberg H, Kuo D, Sakamuru S, Xia M, Smirnova L, Hartung T and Gerhold D. Characterization of three human cell line models for high-throughput neuronal cytotoxicity screening. J. Appl. Toxicol. 2017, 37:167-180. doi: 10.1002/jat.3334.
  39. van Ravenzwaay B, Jiang X, Luechtefeld T and Hartung T. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern for prenatal developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits. Regulatory Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017, 88:157-172. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.06.008.


  1. Ankley G, Escher B, Hartung T and Shah I. Pathway-based approaches for environmental monitoring and risk assessment. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50: 10295−10296. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04425
  2. Ankley G, Escher B, Hartung T and Shah I. Pathway-based approaches for environmental monitoring and risk assessment. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2016, 29, 1789−1790. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00321
  3. Ball N, Cronin MTD, Shen J, Adenuga MD, Blackburn K, Booth ED, Bouhifd M, Donley E, Egnash L, Freeman JJ, Hastings C, Juberg DR, Kleensang A, Kleinstreuer N, Kroese D, Lee AC, Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Marty S, Naciff JM, Palmer J, Pamies D, Penman M, Richarz A-N, Russo DP, Stuard SB, Patlewicz G, van Ravenzwaay B, Wu S, Zhu H and Hartung T. Toward Good Read-Across Practice (GRAP) guidance. ALTEX 2016, 33, 149-166.
  4. Benfenati E, Berggren E, Fritsche E, Hartung T, Slikker W Jr, Spielm ann H, Test ai E, Tice RR, Tiramani M and Villenave R, 2016. Special issue: novel chemical hazard characterisation approaches. EFSA Journal 2016, 14(S1):s0506, 10 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2016.s0506.
  5. Bowman CE, Zhao L, Hartung T and Wolfgang MJ. Requirement for the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in mammalian development revealed by a hypomorphic allelic series. Molecular Cellular Biology, 2016, 36:2089-2104. doi:10.1128/MCB.00166-16
  6. Busquet F, Zurlo J and Hartung T. Can TTIP Improve Laboratory Animal Welfare in Safety Testing and 3Rs? ILAR J, 2016, 57:358-367. doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilw022.
  7. Busquet F, Hartung T and Hubert P. La fin de l’animal cobaye. In: Matignin KL. Revolutions animales – comment les animaux sont deveus intelligents. 2016, Arte Editions, 411-414.
  8. da Silva CC, Presgrave OAF, Hartung T, Lage de Moraes AM, Delgado IF. Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for hyperimmune sera in the routine of the quality control laboratory: Comparison with the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT). Toxicol. In Vitro 2016, 32:70–75.
  9. Fasani RA, Livi CB, Choudhury DR, Kleensang A, Bouhifd M, Pendse SN, McMullen PD, Andersen ME, Hartung T and Rosenberg M. The Human Toxome Collaboratorium: a shared environment for multi-omic computational collaboration within a consortium. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2016, 6:322. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00322.
  10. Ferrario D, Gribaldo L and Hartung T. Arsenic exposure and immunotoxicity: a review including the possible influence of age and sex. Curr Environ Health Rep 2016, 3:1-12. doi: 10.1007/s40572-016-0082-3.
  11. Hartung T. E-Cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing. ALTEX 2016, 33:211-224.
  12. Hartung T. Making big sense from big data in toxicology by read-across. ALTEX, 2016, 33:83-93. doi: 10.14573/altex.1603091.
  13. Hartung T. Can we wait for e-cigarette trials? Chemistry World 2016, available at:
  14. Hartung T. E-cigarettes – the ugly duckling of public health? Scientific American 2016, 315(2):9-9.
  15. Hartung T, Borel A and Schmitz G. Detecting the broad spectrum of pyrogens with the human whole-blood monocyte activation test. BioProcess International 2016, 14:38-56.
  16. Hartung T. (2016) Immunotoxicology. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000955.pub3
  17. Hoffmann S, Hartung T and Stephens M. Evidence-based toxicology. Adv Exp Med Biol 2016, 856:231-241.
  18. Juberg DR, Knudsen TB, Sander M, Beck NB, Faustman EM, Mendrick DL, Fowle JR III, Hartung T, Tice RT, Lemazurier E, Becker RA, Fitzpatrick SC, Daston GP, Harrill A, Hines RN, Keller DA, Lipscomb JC, Watson D, Bahadori T and Crofton KM. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation. Toxicol Sci, 2016, 155:22-31 doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw194.
  19. Kilic O, Pamies D, Lavell E, Hartung T, Bal-Price A, Hogberg HT, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Guerrero-Cazares H and Levchenko A. Microphysiological brain model enables analysis of neuronal differentiation and chemotaxis. Lab Chip 2016,16:4152-4162. DOI: 10.1039/C6LC00946H.
  20. Kleensang A, Vantangoli M, Odwin-DaCosta S, Andersen ME, Boekelheide K, Bouhifd M, Fornace AJ Jr, Livi CB, Madnick S, Maertens A, Zhao L, Rosenberg M, Yager JD and Hartung T. Genetic variability in a frozen batch of MCF-7 cells invisible in routine authentication affecting cell function. Scientific Reports 2016, 6:28994-28994.
  21. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Russo DP, Rovida C, Zhu H and Hartung T. Global analysis of publicly available safety data for 9,801 substances registered under REACH from 2008-2014. ALTEX 2016, 33, 95-109.
  22. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Russo DP, Rovida C, Zhu H and Hartung T. Analysis of public oral toxicity data from REACH registrations 2008-2014. ALTEX 2016, 33, 111-122.
  23. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Russo DP, Rovida C, Zhu H and Hartung T. Analysis of Draize eye irritation testing and its prediction by mining publicly available 2008-2014 REACH data. ALTEX 2016, 33, 123-134.
  24. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Russo DP, Rovida C, Zhu H and Hartung T. Analysis of publically available skin sensitization data from REACH registrations 2008-2014. ALTEX 2016, 33, 135-148.
  25. Marx U, Andersson TB, Bahinski A, Beilmann M, Beken S, Cassee FR, Cirit M, Daneshian M, Fitzpatrick S, Frey O, Gaertner C, Giese C, Griffith L, Hartung T, Heringa MB, Hoeng J, de Jong WH, Kojima H, Kuehnl J, Luch A, Maschmeyer I, Sakharov D, Sips AJAM, Steger-Hartmann T, Tagle DA, Tonevitsky A, Tralau T, Tsyb S, van de Stolpe A, Vandebriel R, Vulto P, Wang J, Wiest J, Rodenburg M and Roth A. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing using animals. ALTEX 2016, 33:272-321. doi: 10.14573/altex.1603161
  26. Pistollato F, Ohayon EL, Lam A, Langley GR, Novak T, Pamies D, Perry G, Trushina E, Williams RSB, Roher AE, Hartung T, Harnad S, Barnard N, Morris MC, Lai M-C, Merkley R and Chandrasekera PC. Alzheimer disease research in the 21st century: past and current failures, new perspectives and funding priorities. Oncotarget 2016, 7:38999-39016. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.9175.
  27. Salem H, Dorsey R, Carmany D and Hartung T. In vivo, in vitro and stem cell technologies to predict human pharmacology and toxicology. In: Atala A and Murphy S. Regenerative Medicine Technology: On-a-chip Applications for Disease Modeling, Drug Discovery and Personalized Medicine. 2016, CRC Press, pp. 363-376. Doi: 10.1201/9781315371344
  28. Samuel GO, Hoffmann S, Wright R, Lalu MM, Patlewicz G, Becker RA, DeGeorge GL, Fergusson D, Hartung T, Lewis J and Stephens M. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: a scoping review. Environment International 2016, 92-93:630-646.
  29. Smirnova L, Harris G, Delp J, Valadares M, Pamies D, Hogberg HT, Waldmann T, Leist M and Hartung T. A LUHMES 3D dopaminergic neuronal model for neurotoxicity testing allowing long-term exposure and cellular resilience analysis. Arch Toxicol 2016, 90:2725-2743. DOI 10.1007/s00204-015-1637-z.
  30. Stephens ML, Betts K, Beck NB, Cogliano V, Dickersin K, Fitzpatrick S, Freeman J, Gray G, Hartung T, McPartland J, Rooney AA, Scherer RW, Verloo D and Hoffmann S. The emergence of systematic review in toxicology. Toxicol Sci, 2016, 152:10–16. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw059
  31. Tsaioun K, Blaauboer BJ and Hartung T. Evidence-based absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) and the role of alternative methods. ALTEX 2016, 33:343-358. doi: 10.14573/altex.1610101
  32. Zhu H, Bouhifd M, Kleinstreuer N, Kroese ED, Liu Z, Luechtefeld T, Pamies D, Shen J, Strauss V, Wu S and Hartung T. Supporting read-across using biological data. ALTEX 2016, 33, 167-182.


  1. Bal-Price A, Crofton KM, Leist M, Allen S, Arand M, Buetler T, Delrue N, FitzGerald RE, Hartung T, Heinonen T, Hogberg H, Hougaard Bennekou S, Lichtensteiger W, Oggier D, Paparella M, Axelstad M, Piersma A, Rached E, Schilter B, Schmuck G, Stoppini L, Tongiorgi E, Tiramani M, Monnet-Tschudi F, Wilks MF, Ylikomi T and Fritsche E. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): Creating a Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) Roadmap for Regulatory Purposes. Arch. Toxicol. 2015, 89:269–287.
  2. Borel A, Holtkamp B, Schmitz G and Hartung T. Improved detection of pyrogens using the monocyte activation test. Pharmaceut. Rev. 2015, May:32-33.
  3. Bouhifd M, Beger R, Flynn T, Guo L, Harris G, Hogberg HT, Kaddurah-Daouk R, Kamp H, Kleensang A, Maertens A, Odwin-DaCosta S, Pamies D, Robertson D, Smirnova L, Sun J, Zhao L and Hartung T. Quality Assurance of Metabolomics. ALTEX, 2015, 32:319-326. doi: 10.14573/altex.1509161
  4. Bouhifd M, Andersen ME, Baghdikian C, Boekelheide K, Crofton KM, Fornace AJ Jr., Kleensang A, Li H, Livi CB, Maertens A, McMullen PD, Rosenberg M, Thomas R, Vantangoli M, Yager JD, Zhao L and Hartung T. The Human Toxome project. ALTEX 2015, 32:112-124. doi: 10.14573/altex.1502091
  5. Daneshian M, Busquet F, Hartung T and Leist M. Animal use for science in Europe. ALTEX, 2015, 32:261-274.
  6. Gordon S, Daneshian M, Bouwstra J, Caloni F, Constant S, Davies DE, Dandekar G, Guzman CA, Fabian E, Haltner E, Hartung T, Hasiwa N, Hayden P, Kandarova H, Khare S, Krug HF, Kneuer C, Leist M, Lian G, Marx U, Metzger M, Ott K, Prieto P, Roberts MS, Roggen EL, Tralau T, van den Braak C, Walles H and Lehr C-M. Non-animal models of epithelial barriers (skin, intestine and lung) in research, industrial applications and regulatory toxicology. ALTEX 2015, 32:327-378.
  7. Hartung T. The human whole blood pyrogen test – lessons learned in twenty years. ALTEX 2015, 32:79-100. doi: 10.14573/altex.1503241 (
  8. Hartung T, Borel A and Schmitz G. The whole blood monocyte activation test: reliable detection of non-endotoxin pyrogens. Innovat. Pharmaceut. Technol. 2015, in press.
  9. Hartung T. Green Toxicology. In: Gocht T and Schwarz M. SEURAT-1: The proof-of-concept case studies. 2015, 59-67.
  10. Hartung T. Toxicity testing of nanomaterials: case for in vitro tests. (chapter 5), 113-152. In: Fadeel B (Ed.) Handbook of Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: From Toxicological Testing to Personalized Medicine. 2015, Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd., Singapore.
  11. Hartung T. Safety First. Innovations in Pharmaceutical Technology, Issue 54:40-43.
  12. Head S, Shi W, Zhao L, Gorshkov K, Pasunooti K, Chen Y, Deng Z, Li R-J, Shim JS, Tan W, Hartung T, Zhang J, Zhao J, Colombini M and Liu JO. The antifungal drug itraconazole targets VDAC1 to modulate the AMPK/mTOR signaling axis in endothelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 2015, 112:E7276-85. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1512867112.
  13. Linkov I, Massey O, Keisler J, Rusyn I and Hartung T. From “weight of evidence” to quantitative data integration using multicriteria decision analysis and Bayesian methods. ALTEX 2015, 32: 3-8. doi:
  14. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, McKim J, Hartung T, Kleensang A and Sá-Rocha V. Probabilistic hazard assessment for skin sensitization potency by dose response modeling using feature elimination instead of QSAR. J. Appl. Toxicol. 2015, 35:1361–1371.
  15. Maertens A, Luechtefeld T, Kleensang A and Hartung T. MPTP’s pathway of toxicity indicates central role of transcription factor SP1. Arch. Toxicol. 2015, 89:743-755. doi: 10.1007/s00204-015-1509-6.
  16. Rovida C, Alépée N, Api AM, Basketter DA, Bois FY, Caloni F, Corsini E, Daneshian M, Eskes C, Ezendam J, Fuchs H, Hayden P, Hegele-Hartung C, Hoffmann S, Hubesch B, Jacobs MN, Jaworska J, Kleensang A, Kleinstreuer N, Lalko J, Landsiedel R, Lebreux F, Luechtefeld T, Locatelli M, Mehling A, Natsch A, Pitchford JW, Prater D, Prieto P, Schepky A, Schuurmann, G, Smirnova L, Toole C, van Vliet E, Weisensee D and Hartung T. Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) for Safety Assessment. ALTEX 2015, 32:171-181. doi: 10.14573/altex.1506201.
  17. Rovida C, Asakura C, Daneshian M, Hofman-Huether H, Leist M, Meunier L, Reif D, Rossi A, Schmutz M, Valentin J-P, Zurlo J and Hartung T. Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals. ALTEX 2015, 32:25-40. doi:
  18. Sauer JM, Hartung T, Leist M, Knudsen TB, Hoeng J and Hayes AW. Systems Toxicology: The Future of Risk Assessment. International Journal of Toxicology 2015, 34:346–348. Doi: 10.1177/1091581815576551
  19. Smirnova L, Harris G, Leist M and Hartung T. Cellular Resilience. ALTEX, 2015, 32:247-260. doi: 10.14573/altex.1509271
  20. Zhao L and Hartung T. Metabonomics and toxicology. Meth. Mol. Biol. 2015, 1277:209-231.


  1. Alépée N, Bahinski T, Daneshian M, De Wever B, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Hansmann J, Hartung T, Haycock J, Hogberg H, Hoelting L, Kelm JM, Kadereit S, McVey E, Landsiedel R, Leist M, Lübberstedt M, Noor F, Pellevoisin C, Petersohn D, Pfannenbecker U, Reisinger K, Ramirez T, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Schäfer-Korting M, Zeilinger K and Zurich M-G. State-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology – a t4 report. ALTEX 2014, 31:441-477.
  2. Andersen M, Betts K, Dragan Y, Fitzpatrick S, Goodman JL, Hartung T, Himmelfarb J, Ingber DE, Jacobs A, Kavlock R, Kolaja K, Stevens JL, Tagle D, Taylor DL and Throckmorton D. Developing microphysiological systems for use as regulatory tools - challenges and opportunities. ALTEX 2014, 31:364-367.
  3. Andersen M, Betts K, Dragan Y, Fitzpatrick S, Goodman JL, Hartung T, Himmelfarb J, Ingber DE, Jacobs A, Kavlock R, Kolaja K, Stevens JL, Tagle D, Taylor DL and Throckmorton D. Developing microphysiological systems for use as regulatory tools - challenges and opportunities - extended online version. ALTEX 2014. Available at:
  4. Bale AS, Kenyon E, Flynn TJ, Lipscomb JC, Mendrick DL, Hartung T, and Patton GW. Correlating in vitro data to in vivo findings for risk assessment. ALTEX 2014, 31:79-90
  5. Bouhifd M, Hogberg HT, Kleensang A, Maertens A, Zhao L and Hartung T. Mapping the Human Toxome by systems toxicology. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2014, 115:1-8, Doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12198
  6. Busquet F, Palopoli M and Hartung T. Regulatory toxicology – progress in law. In: Town W. and Currano JN (Ed) “Science and the Law: Analytical data in support of regulation in health, food, and the environment”, Amer Chem Soc. 2014, Vol. 1147, 51-69.
  7. Ferrario D, Brustio R and Hartung T. Glossary of reference terms for alternative test methods and their validation. ALTEX 2014, 31:319-335.
  8. Hartung T. 3D - A new dimension of in vitro research. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Preface Special Issue "Innovative tissue models for in vitro drug development". 2014, 69:vi.
  9. Hartung T and Stephens M. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, Approaches to Implementation. In: Wexler P. Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd edition, 2014, Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, 673-675.
  10. Hartung T. The wizard of the 3Rs. ALTEX 2014, 31:547-548.
  11. Hartung T. Toward mechanistic validation. In: Gocht T and Schwarz M. SEURAT-1: The proof-of-concept case studies. 2014, 62-72.
  12. Hoffmann S, Stephens M and Hartung T. Evidence-based Toxicology. In: Wexler P (Ed). Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd edition vol 2. Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, 2014, 565–567.
  13. Hoffmann S, Hartung T and Stephens M. Evidence-based toxicology. In: Validating Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing, 2014, Springer
  14. Hogberg HT and Hartung T. Regulatory toxicology – progress in science. In: Town W. and Currano JN (Ed) “Science and the Law: Analytical data in support of regulation in health, food, and the environment”, Amer Chem Soc. 2014, Vol. 1147, 95-110.
  15. Juberg DR, Borghoff SJ, Becker RA, Casey W, Hartung T, Holsapple M, Marty S, Mihaich E, Van Der Kraak G, Wade MG, Willett CE, Andersen M, Borgert C, Coady K, Dix D, Dourson M, Gray E, Lamb J, Ortego L, Schug T, Toole C, Zorrilla L, Kroner O, Patterson J, Rinckel L and Jones B. Lessons Learned, Challenges, and Opportunities: The U.S. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. ALTEX 2014, 31:63-78.
  16. Kleensang A, Maertens A, Rosenberg M, Fitzpatrick S, Lamb J, Auerbach S, Brennan R, Crofton KM, Gordon B, Fornace AJ Jr., Gaido K, Gerhold D, Haw R, Henney A, Ma'ayan A, McBride M, Monti S, Ochs MF, Pandey A, Sharan R, Stierum R, Tugendreich S, Willett C, Wittwehr C, Xia J, Patton GW, Arvidson K, Bouhifd M, Hogberg HT, Luechtefeld T, Smirnova L, Zhao L, Adeleye Y, Kanehisa M, Carmichael P, Andersen E. M, Hartung T. Pathways of Toxicity. ALTEX 2014, 31:53-61. doi: 10.14573/altex.1309261
  17. Krug AK, , Ivanova V, Förster S, Jagtap S, Meiser J, Leparc G, Schildknecht S, Adam M, Hiller K, Farhan H, Brunner T, Hartung T, Sachinidis A, and Leist M. Transcriptional and metabolic adaptation of human neurons to the mitochondrial toxicant MPP+. Cell Death Disease, 2014, 5, e1222. doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.166.
  18. Leist M, Hasiwa N, Rovida C, Daneshian M, Basketter D, Kimber I, Clewell H, Gocht T, Goldberg A, Busquet F, Rossi A-M, Schwarz M, Stephens M, Taalman R, Knudsen TB, McKim J, Harris G, Pamies D and Hartung T. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing. ALTEX 2014, 31:341–356.
  19. Maertens A, Anastas N, Spencer PJ, Stephens M, Goldberg A and Hartung T. Green Toxicology. ALTEX 2014, 31:243-249.
  20. Pamies D, Hartung T and Hogberg HT. Biological and medical applications of a brain-on-a-chip. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 2014 Jun 9. pii: 1535370214537738.
  21. Patlewicz G, Ball N, Becker RA, Blackburn K, Booth E, Cronin M, Kroese D, Steup D, van Ravenzwaay B and Hartung T. Read-across approaches - misconceptions, promises and challenges ahead. ALTEX 2014, 31:387-396.
  22. Rivera-Mariani FE, Vysyaraju K, Negherbon J, Levetin E, Horner WE, Hartung T and Breysse PN. Comparison of the interleukin-1-inducing potency of allergenic spores from higher fungi (basidiomycetes) in a cryopreserved human whole blood system. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2014, 163:154-62.
  23. Simon TW, Simons SS Jr, Preston RJ, Boobis AR, Cohen SM, Doerrer NG, Fenner-Crisp PA, McMullin TS, McQueen CA, Rowlands JC; RISK21 Dose-Response Subteam. The use of mode of action information in risk assessment: quantitative key events/dose-response framework for modeling the dose-response for key events. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014, 44 Suppl 3:17-43. doi: 10.3109/10408444.2014.931925.
  24. Smirnova L, Hogberg HT, Leist M, and Hartung T. Developmental neurotoxicity – challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities. ALTEX 2014, 31:129-156.
  25. Tollefsen KE, Scholz S, Cronin MT, Edwards SW, de Knecht J, Crofton K, Garcia-Reyero N, Hartung T, Worth A, and Patlewicz G. Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA). Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2014, 70:629-640. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.09.009
  26. van Vliet E, Daneshian M, Beilmann M, Davies A, Fava E, Fleck R, Julé Y, Kansy M, Kustermann S, Macko P, Mundy W, Roth A, Shah I, Uteng M, van de Water B, Hartung T and Leist M. Current approaches and future role of high content imaging in safety sciences and drug discovery. ALTEX 2014, 31:479-493.
  27. Willett C, Caverly Rae J, Goyak KO, Minsavage G, Westmoreland C, Andersen M, Avigan M, Duché D, Harris G, Hartung T, Jaeschke H, Kleensang A, Landesmann A, Martos S, Matevia M, Toole C, Rowan A, Schultz T, Seed J, Senior J, Shah I, Subramanian K, Vinken M and Watkins P. Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action. ALTEX 2014, 31: 500-519.


  1. Bouhifd M, Hartung T, Hogberg HT, Kleensang A and Zhao L. Review: Toxicometabolomics. J. Appl. Toxicol. 2013, 33:1365-1383. DOI 10.1002/jat.2874.
  2. Daneshian M, Botana LM, Dechraoui Bottein M-Y, Buckland G, Campàs M, Dennison N, Dickey RW, Diogène J, Fessard V, Hartung T, Humpage A, Leist M, Molgó J, Quilliam MA, Rovida C, Suarez-Isla BA, Tubaro A, Wagner K, Zoller O, and Dietrich D. A roadmap for hazard monitoring and risk assessment of marine biotoxins on the basis of chemical and biological test systems. ALTEX 2013, 30, 487-545.
  3. Davis M, Boekelheide K, Boverhof DR, Eichenbaum G, Hartung T, Holsapple MP, Jones TW, Richard A, and Watkins PB. The new revolution in toxicology: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2013, 1278: 11–24.
  4. Hartung T. Look Back in anger – what clinical studies tell us about preclinical work. ALTEX 2013, 30:275-291. doi: 10.14573/altex.2013.3.275
  5. Hartung T, Luechtefeld T, Maertens A and Kleensang A. Integrated Testing Strategies for Safety Assessments. ALTEX 2013, 30:3-18. doi: 10.14573/altex.2013.1.003
  6. Hartung T, Stephens M and Hoffmann S. Mechanistic validation. ALTEX 2013, 30:119-130. doi: 10.14573/altex.2013.2.119.
  7. Hartung T. From alternative methods to a new regulatory toxicology. ALTEX Proceedings 2, 21-35.
  8. Hartung T, Hasiwa N, Daneshian M, Holtkamp B, Schmitz G and Hossfeld A. Eine wirklich humane Bestimmung von Endotoxinen und Nicht-Endotoxin-Pyrogenen. [A truly human(e) determination of endotoxin and non-endotoxin pyrogens] PharmInd 2013, 75:825-834.
  9. Hartung T and Corsini E. Immunotoxicology: challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities. ALTEX 2013, 30:411-426.
  10. Hasiwa N, Daneshian M, Bruegger P, Fennrich S, Fleck R, Hochadel A, Hoffmann S, Rivera-Mariani FE, Rockel C, Schindler S, Spreitzer I, Stoppelkamp S, Vysyaraju K and Hartung T. Evidence for the detection of non-endotoxin pyrogens by the whole blood monocyte activation test. ALTEX 2013, 30:169-208.
  11. Hogberg HT, Bressler J, Christian KM, Harris G, Makri G, O’Driscoll C, Pamies D, Smirnova L, Wen Z and Hartung T. Toward a 3D model of human brain development for studying gene/environment interactions. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 2013, 4(Suppl 1):S4:1-7. Available at:
  12. Judson R, Kavlock R, Martin M, Reif D, Houck K, Knudsen T, Richard A, Tice R, Whelan M, Xia M, Huang R, Austin C, Daston G, Hartung T, Fowle JR III, Wooge W, Tong W and Dix D. Perspectives on Validation of High-Throughput Pathway-Based Assays Supporting the 21st Century Toxicity Testing Vision ALTEX 2013, 30:51-66.
  13. Leist M and Hartung T. Inflammatory findings on species extrapolations: humans are definitely no 70-kg mice. Arch. Toxicol. 2013, 87:563–567. doi:10.1007/s00204-013-1038-0.
  14. Leist M and Hartung T. Reprint: Inflammatory findings on species extrapolations: humans are definitely no 70-kg mice. ALTEX 2013, 30:227-230.
  15. Ramirez T, Daneshian M, Kamp H, Bois FY, Clench MR, Coen M, Donley B, Fischer SM, Ekman DR, Fabian E, Guillou C, Heuer J, Hogberg HT, Jungnickel H, Keun HC, Krennrich G, Krupp E, Luch A, Noor F, Peter E, Riefke B, Seymour M, Skinner N, Smirnova L, Verheij E, Wagner S, Hartung T, van Ravenzwaay B and Leist M. Metabolomics in toxicology and preclinical research. ALTEX 2013, 30:209-225. doi: 10.14573/altex.2013.2.209
  16. Saldutti LP, Beyer BK, Breslin W, Brown TR, Chapin RE, Campion S, Enright B, Faustman E, Foster PMD, Hartung T, Kelce W, Kim JH, Loboa EG, Piersma AH, Seyler D, Turner KJ, Yu H, Yu X and Sasaki JC. In Vitro Testicular Toxicity Models: Opportunities for Advancement via Biomedical Engineering Techniques. ALTEX 2013, 30:353-377.
  17. Scholz S, Sela E, Blaha L, Braunbeck T, Galay-Burgos M, García-Franco M, Guinea J, Klüver N, Schirmer K, Tanneberger K, Tobor-Kapłon M, Witters H, Belanger S, Benfenati E, Creton S, Cronin MTD, Eggen RIL, Embry M, Ekman D, Gourmelon A, Halder M, Hardy B, Hartung T, Hubesch B, Jungmann D, Lampi MA, Lee LL, Léonard M, Küster E, Lillicrap A, Luckenbach T, Murk AJ, Navas JM, Peijnenburg W, Repetto G, Salinas E, Schüürmann G, Spielmann H, Tollefsen KE, Walter-Rohde S, Whale G, Wheeler JR and Winter MJ. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Regulat. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2013, 67:506-530. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2013.10.003.
  18. Stephens ML, Andersen M, Becker RA, Betts K, Boekelheide K, Carney E, Chapin R, Devlin D, Fitzpatrick S, Fowle JR, Harlow P, Hartung T, Hoffmann S, Holsapple M, Jacobs A, Judson R, Naidenko O, Pastoor T, Patlewicz G, Rowan A, Scherer R, Shaikh R, Simon T, Wolf D and Zurlo J. Evidence-based Toxicology for the 21st Century: Opportunities and Challenges. ALTEX 2013, 30:74-104.
  19. van Vliet E, Eixarch E, Illa M, Arbat-Plana A, González-Tendero A, Hogberg HT, Zhao L, Hartung T and Gratacos E. Metabolomics reveals metabolic alterations by intrauterine growth restriction in the fetal rabbit Therap. PLoS ONE 2013, 8: e64545.


  1. Basketter DA, Clewell H, Kimber I, Rossi A, Blaauboer B, Burrier R, Daneshian M, Eskes C, Goldberg A, Hasiwa N, Hoffmann S, Jaworska J, Knudsen TB, Landsiedel R, Leist M, Locke P, Maxwell G, McKim J, McVey EA, Ouédraogo G, Patlewicz G, Pelkonen O, Roggen E, Rovida C, Ruhdel I, Schwarz M, Schepky A, Schoeters G, Skinner N, Trentz K, Turner M, Vanparys P, Yager J, Zurlo J and Hartung T. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing. ALTEX 2012, 29:3-89.
  2. Ferrario D and Rabbit RR [Hartung T]. Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century (t4 report). ALTEX 2012, 29: 157–172.
  3. Hartung T, van Vliet E, Jaworska J, Bonilla L, Skinner N and Thomas R. Systems toxicology. ALTEX 2012, 29: 119-128. doi: 10.14573/altex.2012.2.119
  4. Hartung T, and Zurlo J. Alternative approaches for medical countermeasures to biological and chemical terrorism and warfare. ALTEX 2012, 29: 251–260. doi: 10.14573/altex.2012.3.251
  5. Hartung T. 21st century toxicology – 88 years left? Chemistry World June 2012, 39.
  6. Leist M, Hasiwa M, Daneshian M and Hartung T. Validation and quality control of replacement alternatives – current status and future challenges. Toxicological Research 2012, 1:8, DOI: 10.1039/C2TX20011B.
  7. Rockel C and Hartung, T. Systematic review of membrane components of Gram-positive bacteria responsible as pyrogens for inducing human monocyte / macrophage cytokine release. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2012, 3. DOI=10.3389/fphar.2012.00056. available at: URL= DOI=10.3389/fphar.2012.00056
  8. Rossini GP and Hartung T. Towards tailored assays for cell-based approaches to toxicity testing. ALTEX 2012, 29:359-372.


  1. Daneshian M, Akbarsha MA, Blaauboer B, Caloni F, Cosson P, Curren R, Goldberg A, Gruber F, Ohl F, Pfaller W, van der Valk J, Vinardell P, Zurlo J, Hartung T and Leist M. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation. ALTEX 2011, 28:341-352.
  2. Dehus O, Pfitzenmaier M, Stuebs G, Fischer N, Schwaeble W, Morath S, Hartung T, Geyer A and Hermann C. Growth temperature-dependent expression of structural variants of Listeria monocytogenes lipoteichoic acid. Immunobiol. 2011, 216:24-31.
  3. Hasiwa N, Bailey J, Clausing P, Daneshian M, Eileraas M, Farkas S, Gyertyán I, Hubrecht R, Kobel W, Krummenacher G, Leist L, Lohi H, Miklósi A, Ohl F, Olejniczak K, Schmitt G, Sinnett-Smith P, Smith D, Wagner K, Yager JD, Zurlo J and Hartung T. Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing in Europe. ALTEX 2011, 28:326-340.
  4. Hartung T, Blaauboer GJ, Bosgra S, Carney E, Coenen J, Conolly RB, Corsini E, Green S, Faustman EM, Gaspari A, Hayashi M, Hayes AW, Hengstler JG, Knudsen LE, Knudsen TB, McKim JM, Pfaller W and Roggen EL. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report “Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects – 2010”. ALTEX 2011, 28, 183-209.
  5. Hartung T. From alternative methods to a new toxicology. Eur. J. Pharmaceutics Biopharmaceutics, 2011, 77:338–349.
  6. Hartung T and McBride M. Food for thought… on mapping the human toxome. ALTEX 2011, 28, 83-93. doi: 10.14573/altex.2011.2.083
  7. Hartung T and Sabbioni E. Alternative in vitro assays in nanomaterial toxicology. WIREs Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 2011, 3:545-573. DOI: 10.1002/wnan.153
  8. National Research Council [Korch GW, Niemi SM, Bergman NH, Carucci DJ, Ehrlich SA, Kwik Cronwall G, Hartung T, Heitman E, Kotb M, Kuhn JH, Lyons CR, Morse SS, Murphy FA, Patel VS, Sweaengen JR, Anestidou L, Sharple F, Anderson C-G, Crossgrove R, Hook-Barnard I, Karalic-Loncarevic M and Rose R.]. Animal models for assessing countermeasures to bioterrorism agents. 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  9. Rockel C, Hartung T and Hermann C. Different S. aureus whole bacteria mutated in putative pro-inflammatory membrane components have similar cytokine-inducing activity, Immunobiol. 2011, 216:316-321.
  10. Rovida C, Longo F, and Rabbit RR [Hartung T]. How are reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity addressed in REACH dossiers? ALTEX 2011, 28:273-294.
  11. Silbergeld EK, Contreras EQ, Hartung T, Hirsch C, Hogberg H, Jachak AC, Jordan W, Landsiedel R, Morris J, Patri A, Pounds JG, de Vizcaya Ruiz A, Shvedova A, Tanguay R, Tatarazako N, van Vliet E, Walker NJ, Wiesner M, Wilcox N and Zurlo J. Nanotoxicology: “the end of the beginning” – Signs on the roadmap to a strategy for assuring the safe application and use of nanomaterials. ALTEX 2011, 28, 236-241.


  1. Bal-Price AK, Hogberg HT, Buzanska L, Lenas P, van Vliet E and Hartung T. In vitro developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing: Relevant models and endpoints. Neurotox. 2010, 31:545-554.
  2. Basketter DA, Kimber I and Hartung T. The evolution of validation: a commentary. Cutaneous Ocular Toxicol. 2010, 29:1-3.
  3. Bottini AA and Hartung T. The economics of animal testing. ALTEX Special Issue 2010, 27:67-77.
  4. Bunk S, Sigel S, Metzdorf D, Sharif O, Triantafilou K, Triantafilou M, Hartung T, Knapp S and von Aulock S. Internalization and co-receptor expression are critical for TLR2-mediated recognition of lipoteichoic acid in human peripheral blood. J. Immunol. 2010, 185:3708-3717.
  5. Daneshian M, Leist M, Hartung T. Center for alternatives to animal testing – Europe (CAAT-EU): a transatlantic bridge for the paradigm shift in toxicology. ALTEX 2010, 27:63-69.
  6. Daneshian M, Leist M, Hartung T. Das Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing – Europe (CAAT-EU): eine transatlantische Brücke für den Paradigmenwechsel in der Toxikologie. ALTEXethik 2010, 2, 90.
  7. Di Mauro C, Bouchon S, Logtmeijer C, Nordvik JP, Pride R and Hartung T. Structured approach to identifying European critical infrastructures. Int. J. Critical Infrastructures, 2010, 6:277-292.
  8. Forti E, Bulgheroni A, Cetin Y, Hartung T, Jennings P, Pfaller W and Prieto P. Characterisation of cadmium chloride induced molecular and functional alterations in bronchial epithelial cells. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 2010, 25:159-168.
  9. Hartung T. Comparative analysis of the revised Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals with its predecessor 86/609/EEC – a t4 report. ALTEX 2010, 27:285-303. doi: 10.14573/altex.2010.4.285.
  10. Hartung T. Evidence based-toxicology – the toolbox of validation for the 21st century? ALTEX 2010, 27:241-251.
  11. Hartung T. Lessons learned from alternative methods and their validation for a new toxicology in the 21st century. J. Toxicol. Env. Health 2010, 13:277-290.
  12. Hartung T. Food for thought… on alternative methods for chemical safety testing. ALTEX 2010, 27, 3-14.
  13. Hartung T. Food for thought… on alternative methods for nanoparticle safety testing. ALTEX 2010, 27:87-95.
  14. Hartung T, Bruner L, Curren R, Eskes C, Goldberg A, McNamee P, Scott L and Zuang V. First alternative method validated by a retrospective weight-of-evidence approach to replace the Draize eye test for the identification of non-irritant substances for a defined applicability domain. ALTEX 2010, 27, 43-51.
  15. Hartung T and Koeter H. Congress Chairmen´s Preface. ALTEX Special Issue 2010, 1-2.
  16. Hartung, T. Vor- und Nachdenkliches… zu Alternativmethoden für die Sicherheitsprüfung von Chemikalien. ALTEXethik 2010, 2, 87.
  17. Hartung, T, Bruner L, Curren R, Eskes C, Goldberg A, McNamee P, Scott L and Zuang V. Erste Alternativmethode zum Ersatz des Draize Augentests zur Identifizierung nicht-irritativer Substanzen für eine definierte Applikationsdomäne durch einen retrospektiven weight-of-evidence-Ansatz validiert. ALTEX 2010, ALTEXethik 2010, 2, 89.
  18. Hartung, T. Vor- und Nachdenkliches… zu Alternativmethoden für die Sicherheitsprüfung von Nanopartikeln. ALTEXethik 2010, 2, 91.
  19. Hartung T. Evidenz-basierte Toxikologie – die richtige Methodensammlung für Validierung im 21. Jahrhundert? ALTEXethik 2010, 2, 102.
  20. Hartung T. Vergleichende Analyse der überarbeiteten Richtlinie 2010/63/EU für den Schutz von Labortieren mit der abgelösten Richtlinie 86/609/EEC – ein t4 Bericht. ALTEXethik 2010, 2, 103.
  21. Hogberg HT, Kinsner-Ovaskainen A, Coecke S, Hartung T and Bal-Price AK. mRNA expression is a relevant tool to identify developmental neurotoxicants using an in vitro approach. Tox. Sci. 2010, 113:95-115.
  22. Holtkamp B, Schmitz G and Hartung T. In vitro-Pyrogentest - Nachweis eines breiten Pyrogenspektrums im Monozyten-Aktivierungstest. Biospektrum 2010, 16:779-781.
  23. Presgrave O, Eskes C, Presgrave R, Alves E, Freitas JC, Caldeira C, Gimines I, Silva R, Nogueira S, Nunes J, Rivera E, Sá-Rocha V, Coecke S and Hartung T. A Proposal to Establish a Brazilian Center for Validation of Alternative Methods (BraCVAM). ALTEX Special Issue 2010, 27:159-161.


  1. Bottini AA and Hartung T. Food for thought… on economics of animal testing. ALTEX 2009, 26:3-16. doi: 10.14573/altex.2009.1.3
  2. Bottini AA and Hartung T. Vor- und Nachdenkliches… zu ökonmischen Aspekten von Tierversuchen. ALTEX ethik 2009, 1:94-99.
  3. Bulgheroni A, Kinsner-Ovaskainen A, Hoffmann S, Hartung T and Prieto P. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using no adverse effect level (NOAEL) from the 28-day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 2009, 53:16-19.
  4. Corvi R and Hartung T. Alternative in vitro methods for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2009, 61:255.
  5. Daneshian M, von Aulock S and Hartung T. Assessment of pyrogenic contaminations with the validated human whole blood assay. Nature Protocols 2009, 12:1709-1721.
  6. Eskes C, de Moura Sa-Rocha V, Nunes J, Presgrave O, de Carvalho D, Masson P, Rivera E, Coecke S, Kreysa J and Hartung T. Proposal for a Brazilian centre on alternative test methods. ALTEX 2009, 26:265-268.
  7. Ferrario D, Collotta A, Carfi M, Bowe G, Vahter M, Hartung T and Gribaldo L. Arsenic induces telomerase expression and maintains telomere length in human cord blood cells. Toxicology 2009, 260:132-141.
  8. Griesinger C, Hoffmann S, Kinsner-Ovaskainen A, Coecke S and Hartung T. Proceedings of the First International Forum Towards Evidence-Based Toxicology. Conference Centre Spazio Villa Erba, Como, Italy. 15−18 October 2007. Preface. Human Exp. Toxicol. 2008, Special Issue: Evidence-Based Toxicology (EBT) 2009, 28:83-86.
  9. Griesinger C, Hoffmann S, Kinsner A, Coecke S and Hartung T. Current schemes for decision-making in toxicology. Human Exp. Toxicol. 2009, 28:147.
  10. Griesinger C, Hoffmann S, Kinsner A, Coecke S and Hartung T. Current information sources for hazard identification. Human Exp. Toxicol. 2009, 28:149.
  11. Griesinger C, Hoffmann S, Kinsner A, Coecke S and Hartung T. Evidence-based tools in toxicological basic research. Human Exp. Toxicol. 2009, 28:151-152.
  12. Griesinger C, Hoffmann S, Kinsner A, Coecke S and Hartung T. Evidence-based tools in toxicological hazard identification. Human Exp. Toxicol. 2009, 28:153.
  13. Griesinger C, Hoffmann S, Kinsner A, Coecke S and Hartung T. Evidence-based tools in toxicological decision-making. Human Exp. Toxicol. 2009, 28:155.
  14. Griesinger C, Hoffmann S, Kinsner A, Coecke S and Hartung T. Possible improvement of information sources on hazard and risk. Human Exp. Toxicol. 2009, 28:157.
  15. Hartung T, Blaauboer B and Leist M. Food for thought… on education in alternative methods in toxicology. ALTEX 2009, 26:255-263.
  16. Hartung T and Rovida C. Chemical regulators have overreached. Nature 2009, 460:1080-1081.
  17. Hartung T. Toxicology for the twenty-first century. Nature 2009, 460:208-212. doi:10.1038/460208a
  18. Hartung T. Fundamentals of an evidence-based toxicology Human Exp. Toxicol. 2009, 28:93-94.
  19. Hartung T. A toxicology for the 21st century: Mapping the road ahead. Tox. Sci. 2009, 109:18-23.
  20. Hartung T. Food for thought… on evidence-based toxicology. ALTEX 2009, 26:75-82.
  21. Hartung T. Per aspirin ad astra... ATLA - Altern Lab Anim 2009, 37, Suppl 2:45-47.
  22. Hartung T and Daston G. Are in vitro tests suitable for regulatory use? Tox. Sci. 2009, 111:233-237.
  23. Hartung T and Hoffmann S. Food for thought on…. in silico methods in toxicology. ALTEX 2009, 26:155-166. doi:10.14573/altex.2009.3.155
  24. Hartung T. Vor- und Nachdenkliches… zu Evidenz-basierten Toxikologie. ALTEXethik 2009, 1:102-106.
  25. Hartung T and Hoffmann S. Vor- und Nachdenkliches… zu in silico Methoden in der Toxikologie. ALTEXethik 2009, 1:108-109.
  26. Hartung T, Blaauboer B and Leist M. Vor- und Nachdenkliches… zur Lehre von Alternativmethoden in der Toxikologie. ALTEXethik 2009, 1:117-120.
  27. Hartung T and Rovida C. That which must not, cannot be... a reply to the EChA and EDF responses to the REACH analysis of animal use and costs. ALTEX 2009, 26:307-311.
  28. Hogberg H, Kinsner A, Hartung T, Coecke S and Bal-Price A. Gene expression as a sensitive endpoint to evaluate cell differentiation and maturation of the developing central nervous system in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) exposed to pesticides. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 235:268-286.
  29. Kinsner-Ovaskainen A; Griesinger C, Hoffmann A, Coecke S, Bowe G, Campana C and Hartung T. An online portal to evidence-based toxicology. Human Exp. Toxicol. 2009, 28:161-162.
  30. Kinsner-Ovaskainen A, Bulgheroni A, Hartung T and Prieto P. ECVAM’s ongoing activities in the area of acute oral toxicity. Toxicol. In Vitro 2009, 23:1535-1540.
  31. Moore N, Bremer S, Carmichael N, Daston G, Dent M, Gaoua-Chapelle W, Hallmark N, Hartung T, Holzum B, Hübel U, Meisters M-L, Schneider S, van Ravenzwaay B and Hennes C. A modular approach to the extended one-generation reproduction toxicity study: Outcome of an ECETOC task force and International ECETOC/ECVAM workshop. ATLA – Altern. Lab. Anim. 2009, 37:219-225.
  32. Rahman O, Pfitzenmaier M, Pester O, Morath S, Cummings SP, Hartung T and Sutcliffe IC. Macroamphiphilic components of thermophilic actinomycetes: identification of lipoteichoic acid in Thermobifida fusca. J. Bacteriol. 2008, 191:152-160.
  33. Rovida C. and Hartung T. Re-evaluation of animal numbers and costs for in vivo tests to accomplish REACH legislation requirements. ALTEX 2009, 26:187-208.
  34. Rovida C. and Hartung T. Neuevaluierung der erforderlichen Tierzahlen und Kosten der in vivo Tests zur Erfüllung der REACH Vorgaben für Chemikalien – ein Bericht des “transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t4)”. ALTEXethik 2009, 1:115.
  35. Schindler S, von Aulock S, Daneshian M and Hartung T. Development, validation and applications of the monocyte activation test for pyrogens based on human whole blood. ALTEX 2009, 26:293-305.
  36. Schindler S, von Aulock S, Daneshian M and Hartung T. Entwicklung, Validierung und Anwendungsbereiche des Monozyten Aktivationstests für Pyrogene auf der Basis menschlichen Vollbluts. ALTEXethik 2009, 1:122.
  37. Schneider K, Schwarz M, Burkholder I, Kopp-Schneider A, Edler L, Kinsner-Ovaskainen A, Hartung T and Hoffmann S. "ToxRTool", a new tool to assess the reliability of toxicological data. Toxicol. Lett. 2009, 189:138-144.
  38. Schwarz M, Bremer S, Dencker L, Garthoff B, Hartung T, Lazzari G, Mantovani A, Pellizzer C and Spielmann H. ReProTect: Hazard assessment of reproductive toxicity. Toxicol. Lett. 2009, 189, Suppl. 1:S37. Scott L, Eskes C, Hoffmann S, Adriaens E, Alepée N, Bufo M, Clothier R, Facchini D, Faller C, Guest R, Harbell J, Hartung T, Kamp H, Le Varlet B; Meloni M, McNamee P, Osborne R, Pape W, Pfannenbecker U, Prinsen M, Seaman C, Spielmann H, Stokes W, Trouba K, Van den Berghe C, van Goethem F, Vassallo M, Vinardell P and Zuang V. A proposed eye irritation testing strategy to reduce and replace in vivo studies using bottom-up and top-down approaches. Toxicol. In Vitro 2009, 24:1-9.