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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthCAAT

1999 Recognition Awards

Herman B.W.M. Koeter

Herman Koeter, who is Dutch, has been Principal Administrator at the Paris-based OECD Environmental Health and Safety Division since November 1991. He is responsible for directing a number of programs related to animal welfare, test guidelines, and validation of alternative methods. He also is the senior advisor for the OECD on human health risk characterization and assessment issues. He has published more than 90 papers in the scientific literature on toxicology issues, risk assessment, and animal welfare policies.

Equally as important as his scientific work, however, has been his efforts-- through participation in numerous symposia, conferences, workshops and other international scientific meetings-- to promote the 3Rs, validation, and harmonization of policies and programs internationally. He is well-known for his support of dialogue between scientists, regulatory agencies, and members of the animal protection community.

Robert A. Scala

Throughout a career in toxicology that spans more than 40 years, Robert Scala has been an outspoken advocate for the responsible and humane use of animals, and for the development, validation, and adoption of alternative methods.

In January 1999, Scala chaired a peer review panel that evaluated the first in vitro toxicity testing method to undergo independent scientific peer review by the U.S. government, and led the preparation of a thorough peer review panel report. That report, sponsored by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), will serve as the basis for decision-making by all U.S. regulatory agencies.

He also was instrumental in crafting the set of criteria ICCVAM will use to evaluate new methods. These criteria were adopted by the U.S. regulatory and research agencies participating in ICCVAM, as well as by participants at an international workshop sponsored by the 29-member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).