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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthCAAT

Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, and Ethics

Joanne Zurlo, Deborah Rudacille, and Alan M. Goldberg

Appendix B: Timeline of In Vitro Toxicology

1954Pomerat and Leake discuss in detail the use of tissue culture for drug assays, including toxicity measurements. They compile a table of toxicity data from tissue culture studies on 110 substances.
1957The Increase of Humanity in Experimentation by W. M. S. Russell outlines the three Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement).
1959The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique By W. M. S. Russell and Rex Burch of the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) is published.
1962The Lawson-Tait Trust is founded in England to encourage and support researchers pursuing alternative techniques.
1967The United Action for Animals is founded in the United States to promote replacement alternatives.
1969FRAME (Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments) is founded in London to promote the use of alternatives where available and to support increased funding for research aimed at developing alternative methods.
1970Is the Laboratory Animal Obsolete?, published by FRAME, outlines replacement methodologies such as computer modeling, tissue culture studies, and the use of lower organisms.
1971Bruce Ames of the University of California at Berkeley introduces a test for mutagens using Salmonella typhimurium.
The Council of Europe passes Resolution 621 that proposes the establishment of a documentation and information center on alternatives.
1978Alternatives to Animal Experiments by D. H. Smyth of the Research Defense Society is published in Britain.
1980The Coalition to Abolish the Draize Test is founded by Henry Spira. Revlon funds alternatives research at Rockefeller University.
Symposium on the use of tissue culture in toxicology is held in Sosterburg, Holland.
1981The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association (CTFA) funds the establishment of the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.
1982The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) funds its first 16 grants and holds its first symposium.
1985The Soap and Detergent Association initiates the In Vitro Alternatives Program.
1986CAAT and Bausch & Lomb sponsor "A Critical Evaluation of Alternatives to Acute Ocular Irritation Testing" workshop.
1988The CTFA announces the Evaluation of Alternatives Program.
First joint government/industry workshop on progress toward nonanimal alternatives to the Draize test is held.
First meeting of the Industrial In Vitro Toxicology Group (IIVTG), a group of corporate toxicologists who are applying in vitro methodologies in their research and development.
1989Noxell Corporation, manufacturer of cosmetics and personal care products, announces implementation of the agarose diffusion method for ocular irritation testing.
ZEBET, The Center for the Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments, is established at the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of the Federal Health Institute in Germany.
The Procter & Gamble Company announces the University Animal Alternatives Research Program.
Avon Products, Inc. announces that it will no longer use the Draize eye test.
First meeting of the CAAT Government Exchange Group.
MEIC, Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity Testing, is launched by the Scandinavian Society for Cell Biology.
1990CAAT/ERGATT workshop on validation is held.
1991IRAG (Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group) holds Regulatory Consensus Workshop on Eye Irritation Methodology.
Alan M. Goldberg, PhD, CAAT Director, is presented with the Humane Society of the United States' first Russell & Burch Award.
OECD accepts Fixed Dose Procedure as alternative to the classic LD50.
1992ICAAT founded in The Netherlands.
European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods is formed.
EC Cosmetics Directive banning the sale of cosmetic products containing ingredients that have been tested on animals after 1998 approved by Council of Ministers in November. The Ministers agree to consider extending the deadline if validated alternatives are not yet available.
1993The first World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences: Education, Research, and Testing takes place in Baltimore in November.