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Full list of CAAT Director Thomas Hartung's publications

The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique

The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch (book)
The seminal work that established the concept of the 3Rs of alternatives, in its entirely.

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Previous Scientific Publications

  1. Albrecht W, Kappenberg F, Brecklinghaus T, Stoeber R, Marchan R, Zhang M, Ebbert K, Kirschner H, Grinberg M, Leist M, Moritz W, Cadenas C, Ghallab A, Reinders J, Vartak N, van Thriel C, Golka K, Tolosa L, Castell JV, Damm G, Seehofer D, Lampen A, Braeuning A, T Buhrke, Behr AC, Oberemm A, Kamp H, Gu X, Kittana N, van de Water B, Kreiling R, Fayyaz S, van Aerts L, Smedsrod B, Ellinger-Ziegelbauer H, Steger-Hartmann T, Gundert-Remy U, Zeigerer A, Ullrich A, Runge D, Lee SML, Schiergens TS, Sachinidis A, Edlund K, Gardner I, Rahnenführer J, Hengstler JG. (2019) Prediction of human drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in relation to oral doses and blood concentrations. Arch Toxicol, 2019 Jun;93(6):1609-1637. doi: 10.1007/s00204-019-02492-9.
  2. Ankley G, Escher B, Hartung T and Shah I. Pathway-based approaches for environmental monitoring and risk assessment. Environmental Sience & Technology 2016, 50: 10295−10296. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04425 (IF 5.3).
  3. Ankley G, Escher B, Hartung T and Shah I. Pathway-based approaches for environmental monitoring and risk assessment. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2016, 29, 1789−1790. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00321 (IF 3.5)
  4. Aschner M, Ceccatelli S, Daneshian M, Fritsche E, Hasiwa N, Hartung T, Hogberg HT, Leist M, Li A, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Piersma AH, Bal-Price A, Seiler A, Westerink R, Zimmer B and Lein P. Selection of reference compounds for characterization and development of alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing. ALTEX 2016, in press. doi: 10.14573/altex.1604201 (IF 4.1)
  5. Ball N, Cronin MTD, Shen J, Adenuga MD, Blackburn K, Booth ED, Bouhifd M, Donley E, Egnash L, Freeman JJ, Hastings C, Juberg DR, Kleensang A, Kleinstreuer N, Kroese D, Lee AC, Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Marty S, Naciff JM, Palmer J, Pamies D, Penman M, Richarz A-N, Russo DP, Stuard SB, Patlewicz G, van Ravenzwaay B, Wu S, Zhu H and Hartung T. Toward Good Read-Across Practice (GRAP) guidance. ALTEX 2016, 33, 149-166. (IF 4.1)
  6. Benfenati E, Berggren E, Fritsche E, Hartung T, Slikker W Jr, Spielm ann H, Test ai E, Tice RR, Tiramani M and Villenave R, 2016. Special issue: novel chemical hazard characterisation approaches. EFSA Journal 2016, 14(S1):s0506, 10 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2016.s0506.
  7. Bowman, Zhao L, Hartung T and Wolfgang MJ. Requirement for the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in mammalian development revealed by a hypomorphic allelic series. Molecular Cellular Biology, 2016, in press. doi:10.1128/MCB.00166-16 [Epub ahead of print] (IF 4.8)
  8. Bowman CE, Rodriguez S, Alpergin ES, Zhao L, Hartung T, Watkins PA and Wolfgang MJ. The mammalian malonyl-CoA synthetase ACSF3 is required for mitochondrial protein malonylation and metabolic efficiency. Submitted
  9. Busquet, F., Hartung, T., Pallocca, G. et al. (2020) Harnessing the Power of Animal-Free Test Methods for the Development of COVID-19 Drugs and Vaccines. Harnessing the power of novel animal‑free test methods for the development of COVID‑19 drugs and vaccines. Arch Toxicol, ( 
  10. Busquet F and Hartung T. Trans-Atlantic harmonization of standards. ILAR J, 2016, in press (IF 2.4)
  11. Busquet, F., Kleensang, A., Rovida, C., Herrmann, K., Leist, M. and Hartung, T. (2020) New European Union statistics on laboratory animal use– what really counts!, ALTEX—Alternatives to animal experimentation, 37(2), pp. 167-186.
  12. da Silva CC, Presgrave OAF, Hartung T, Lage de Moraes AM, Delgado IF. Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for hyperimmune sera in the routine of the quality control laboratory: Comparison with the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT). Toxicol. In Vitro 2016, 32:70–75. (IF 2.7)
  13. Delp J, Funke M, Rudolf F, Cediel Ulloa A, Hougaard S, van der Stel W, Carta G, Jennings P, Toma C, Gardner I, van de Water B, Forsby A, Leist M. (2019) – Development of a neurotoxicity assay that is tuned to detect mitochondrial toxicands. Arch Toxicol, in press (10.1007/s00204-019-02473-y)
  14. Elgogary A, Xu Q, Poore B, Alt J, Zimmermann SC, Zhao L, Fu J, Chen B, Xia S, Liu Y, Neisser M, Nguyen C, Lee R, Park JK, Reyes J, Hartung T, Rojas C, Rais R, Tsukamoto T, Semenza GL, Hanes J, Slusher BS and Le A. Combination therapy with BPTES nanoparticles and metformin targets the metabolic heterogeneity of pancreatic cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2016, in press. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611406113  [Epub ahead of print] (IF 9.4)
  15. Escher BI, Hackermüller J, Polte T, Scholz S, Aigner A, Altenburger R, Böhme A, Bopp SK, Brack W, Busch W, Chadeau-Hyam M, Covaci A, Eisenträger A, Galligan J, Garcia-Reyero N, Hartung T, Hein M, Herberth G, Jahnke A, Kleinjans J, Kluever N, Krauss M, Lamoree M, Lehmann I, Luckenbach T, Miller GW, Mueller A, Phillips DH, Rappaport SM, Reemtsma T, Rolle-Kampczyk U, Schüürmann G, Schwikowski B, Tan Y-M, Trump S, Walter-Rohde S and Wambaugh JF. From the exposome to mechanistic understanding of chemical-induced adverse effects. submitted
  16. Fasani RA, Livi CB, Choudhury DR, Kleensang A, Bouhifd M, Pendse SN, McMullen PD, Andersen ME, Hartung T and Rosenberg M. The Human Toxome Collaboratorium: a shared environment for multi-omic computational collaboration within a consortium. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2016, 6:322. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00322. (IF 3.8)
  17. Grego S, Dougherty ER, Alexander FJ, Auerbach SS, Berridge BR, Bittner ML, Casey W, Cooley P, Dash A, Ferguson SS, Fennell TR, Hawkins BT, Hickey AJ, Kleensang A, Liebmann MN, Martin F, Maull EA, Paragas J, Qiao G, Ramaiahgara S, Sumner SJ, Yoon M: Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures. ALTEX 2016 (in press), 10.14573/altex.1608221
  18. Hartung T. Utility of the Adverse Outcome Pathway concept in drug development. Expert Opinion In Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 2016, in press. (IF 2.8)
  19. Hartung T.  E-Cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing. ALTEX 2016, 33:211-224. (IF 4.1)
  20. Hartung T. Evolution of toxicological science: the need for change. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management 2016, in press.
  21. Hartung T. Making big sense from big data in toxicology by read-across. ALTEX, 2016, 33:83-93. (IF 4.1)
  22. Hartung T. Perspectives on in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. J. Appl. In Vitro Toxicol., revised.
  23. Hartung T. Introduction and overview. In: Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III: ADME and Toxicology: A Comprehensive Overview of the Current Status and Application of Predictive ADMET. Elsevier, in press.
  24. Hartung T. Can we wait for e-cigarette trials? Chemistry World 2016, available at: (IF 0.2)
  25. Hartung T. E-cigarettes—the ugly duckling of public health? Scientific American 315(2):9-9. (IF 1.5)
  26. Hartung T, Borel A and Schmitz G. Detecting the broad spectrum of pyrogens with the human whole-blood monocyte activation test. BioProcess International 2016, 14:38-56.
  27. Hartung T, Hogberg HT, Leist M, Pamies D and Smirnova L. Advanced cell techniques to study developmental neurobiology and toxicology. In: Slikker W and Wang C. Neural Cell Biology. Chapter 18. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, in press.
  28. Hartung T. Alternativen zu Tierversuchen. In: Greim H. and Deml E. Toxikologie: Eine Einführung für Naturwissenschaftler und Mediziner. 2nd edition, Wiley, in press.
  29. Juberg DR, Knudsen TB, Beck N, Becker RA, Daston GP, Faustman EM, Fitzpatrick SC, Fowle  JR III, Harrill A, Hartung T, Hines RN, Keller DA, Lemazurier E, Lipscomb JC, Mendrick DL,  Sander M, Tice RT and Watson D. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation. Toxicol Sci, 2016, in peress. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw194. Available at: (IF 4.3)
  30. Kaesler S, Skabytska Y, Chen K-M, Kempf WE, Volz T, Köberle M, Wölbing F, Hein U, Hartung T, Kirschning C, Röcken M and Biedermann T. Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid induces temporary T-cell paralysis independent of Toll-like receptor 2. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2016, in press. (IF 11.5)   
  31. Kilic O, Pamies D, Lavell E, Hartung T, Bal-Price A, Hogberg HT, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Guerrero-Cazares H and Levchenko A. Microphysiological brain model enables analysis of neuronal differentiation and chemotaxis. Lab Chip 2016, in print. DOI: 10.1039/C6LC00946H. (IF 6.1).
  32. Kleensang A, Vantangoli M, Odwin-DaCosta S, Andersen ME, Boekelheide K, Bouhifd M, Fornace AJ Jr, Livi CB, Madnick S, Maertens A, Zhao L, Rosenberg M, Yager JD and Hartung T. Genetic variability in a frozen batch of MCF-7 cells invisible in routine authentication affecting cell function. Scientific Reports 6: 28994-28994. (IF 5.6)
  33. Kleensang A, Maertens A and Hartung T. From big data to predictive analysis from in vitro systems. In: Atala A and Murphy S. Regenerative Medicine Technology: On-a-chip Applications for Disease Modeling, Drug Discovery and Personalized Medicine. CRC Press, in press.
  34. Laquieze L, Brohem CA, Falagan-Lotsch P, Ribeiro AR, Borojevic R, Hartung T and Granjeiro JM. Alternative methods for cosmetics safety assessment. Submitted.
  35. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Russo DP, Rovida C, Zhu H and Hartung T. Global analysis of publicly available safety data for 9,801 substances registered under REACH from 2008-2014. ALTEX 2016, 33, 95-109. (IF 4.1)
  36. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Russo DP, Rovida C, Zhu H and Hartung T. Analysis of public oral toxicity data from REACH registrations 2008-2014. ALTEX 2016, 33, 111-122. (IF 4.1)
  37. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Russo DP, Rovida C, Zhu H and Hartung T. Analysis of Draize eye irritation testing and its prediction by mining publicly available 2008-2014 REACH data. ALTEX 2016, 33, 123-134. (IF 4.1)
  38. Luechtefeld T, Maertens A, Russo DP, Rovida C, Zhu H and Hartung T. Analysis of publically available skin sensitization data from REACH registrations 2008-2014. ALTEX 2016, 33, 135-148. (IF 4.1)
  39. Maertens A, Bouhifd M, Zhao L, Odwin-DaCosta S, Kleensang A, Yager JD and Hartung T. Metabolomic network analysis of estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells: a comparison of over-representation analysis, quantitative enrichment analysis and pathway analysis versus metabolite network analysis. Arch. Toxicol. 2016, in press. DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1695-x (IF 5.1)
  40. Marx U, Andersson TB, Bahinski A, Beilmann M, Beken S, Cassee FR, Cirit M, Daneshian M, Fitzpatrick S, Frey O, Gaertner C, Giese C, Griffith L, Hartung T, Heringa MB, Hoeng J, de Jong WH, Kojima H, Kuehnl J, Luch A, Maschmeyer I, Sakharov D, Sips AJAM, Steger-Hartmann T, Tagle DA, Tonevitsky A, Tralau T, Tsyb S, van de Stolpe A, Vandebriel R, Vulto P, Wang J, Wiest J, Rodenburg M and Roth A. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing using animals. ALTEX 2016, 33:272-321. doi: 10.14573/altex.1603161 (IF 4.1)
  41. Negherbon J, Romero K, Williams DL, Guerrero-Preston RE, Hartung T, Scott A, Breysse PN and Checkley. Whole blood cytokine response to particulate matter in children with and without asthma. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, submitted.
  42. Pamies D, Barreras P, Block K, Makri G, Kumar A, Wiersma D, Smirnova L, ZangC, Bressler J, Christian KM, Harris G, Ming GL, Berlinicke CJ, Kyro K, Song H, Pardo CA, Hartung T, Hogberg  HT. A human brain microphysiological system derived from induced pluripotent stem cells to study neurological diseases and toxicity. ALTEX. 2016 Nov 24. doi: 10.14573/altex.1609122. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27883356.
  43. Pamies D, Bal-Price A, Simeonov A, Tagle D, Allen D, Gerhold D, Yin D, Pistollato F, Inutsuka T, Sullivan K, Stacey G, Salem H, Leist M, Daneshian M, Vemuri MC, McFarland R, Coecke S, Fitzpatrick SC, Lakshmipathy U, Mack A, Wang WB, Sekino Y, Kanda Y, Smirnova L and Hartung T. Good Cell Culture Practice for stem cells and stem-cell-derived models. ALTEX 2016, in press. Available at: (IF 4.1)
  44. Pamies D and Hartung T. 21st century cell culture for 21st century toxicology. Chem Res Toxicol, in press. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00269 (IF 3.5).
  45. Pendse SN, Maertens A, Rosenberg M, Roy D, Fasani R, Vantangoli M, Madnick S, Boekelheide K, Fornace A Jr, Odwin S-A, Yager J, Hartung T, Andersen ME and McMullen PD. Information-dependent enrichment analysis reveals time-dependent transcriptional regulation of the estrogen pathway of toxicity. Arch. Toxicol. 2016, in press. doi:  [Epub ahead of print] (IF 5.1)
  46. Pistollato F, Ohayon EL, Lam A, Langley GR, Novak TJ, Pamies D, Perry G, Trushina E, Williams RS, Roher AE, Hartung T, Harnad S, Barnard N, Morris MC, Lai MC, Merkley R, Chandrasekera PC. Alzheimer disease research in the 21st century: past and current failures, new perspectives and funding priorities. Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 28;7(26):38999-39016. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.9175. PubMed PMID: 27229915.
  47. Russo DP, Kim MT, Wang W, Pinolini D, Shende S, Strickland J, Hartung T and Zhu H. CIIPro: a new read-across portal to fill data gaps using public large-scale chemical and biological data. Bioinformatics 2016, in press. (IF 5.8)
  48. Salem H, Dorsey R, Carmany D and Hartung T. In vivo, in vitro and stem cell technologies to predict human pharmacology and toxicology. In: Atala A and Murphy S. Regenerative Medicine Technology: On-a-chip Applications for Disease Modeling, Drug Discovery and Personalized Medicine. CRC Press, in press.
  49. Samuel GO, Hoffmann S, Wright R, Lalu MM, Patlewicz G, Becker RA, DeGeorge GL, Fergusson D, Hartung T, Lewis J and Stephens M. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: a scoping review. Environment International 2016, 92-93:630-646. (IF 5.6)
  50. Sauer JM, Kleensang A, Peitsch MC, Hayes AW: Advancing Risk Assessment through the Application of Systems Toxicology. Toxicol Res 2016, 32(1):5-8, 10.5487/TR.2016.32.1.005
  51. Schmidt BZ, Lehmann M, Gutbier S, Nembo E, Noel S, Smirnova L, Forsby A, Hescheler J, Avci HX, Hartung T, Leist M, Kobolák J and Dinnyés A. In vitro neurotoxicity screening: an overview of cellular platforms and high-throughput technical possibilities. Arch. Toxicol. 2016, in press. DOI 10.1007/s00204-016-1805-9.  (IF 5.1)
  52. Smirnova L, Harris G, Delp J, Valadares M, Pamies D, Hogberg HT, Waldmann T, Leist M, Hartung T. A LUHMES 3D dopaminergic neuronal model for neurotoxicity testing allowing long-term exposure and cellular resilience analysis. Arch Toxicol. 2016 Nov;90(11):2725-2743. PubMed PMID: 26647301; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5065586.
  53. Sogorb MA, Pamies D, Estevan C, Estévez J, Vilanova E. Roles of NTE protein and encoding gene in development and neurodevelopmental toxicity. Chem Biol Interact. 2016 Jul 28. pii: S0009-2797(16)30304-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2016.07.030. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27475862.
  54. Stephens ML, Betts K, Beck NB, Cogliano V, Dickersin K, Fitzpatrick S, Freeman J, Gray G, Hartung T, McPartland J, Rooney AA, Scherer RW, Verloo D and Hoffmann S. The emergence of systematic review in toxicology. Toxicol Sci, 2016, in press. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw059 [Epub ahead of print] (IF 4.3)
  55. Taylor A.M. Wolffe, Paul Whaley, Crispin Halsall, Andrew A. Rooney, Vickie R. Walker. Systematic evidence maps as a novel tool to support evidence-based decision-making in chemicals policy and risk management, Environment International, Volume 130, 2019.
  56. Tong Z-B, Hogberg H, Kuo D, Sakamuru S, Xia M, Smirnova L, Hartung T and Gerhold D. Identification of a favored cell line model for neuronal cytotoxicity testing. J. Appl. Toxicol. 2016, in press. (IF 2.6).
  57. Tsaioun K, Blaauboer BJ, Hartung T. Evidence-based absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and its interplay with alternative toxicity methods. ALTEX. 2016;33(4):343-358. doi: 10.14573/altex.1610101. PMID: 27806179
  58. van Ravenzwaay B, Jiang X, Luechtefeld T and Hartung T. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern for prenatal developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits. Submitted.
  59. Zhu H, Bouhifd M, Donley E, Egnash L, Kleinstreuer N, Kroese ED, Liu Z, Luechtefeld T, Palmer J, Pamies D, Shen J, Strauss V, Wu S, Hartung T. Supporting read-across using biological data. ALTEX. 2016;33(2):167-82. doi: 10.14573/altex.1601252. PubMed PMID: 26863516; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4834201.

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